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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Evolving Cell-Based and Cell-Free Clinical Strategies for Treating Severe Human Liver Diseases

1
Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
2
Maria Pia Hospital, 10126 Turin, Italy
3
Molecular Biotechnology Center, Departmet of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
4
Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, 10126 Turin, Italy
5
Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Molecular Biotechnology Center, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors jointly supervised this work.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020386
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
Liver diseases represent a major global health issue, and currently, liver transplantation is the only viable alternative to reduce mortality rates in patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, scarcity of donor organs and risk of recidivism requiring a re-transplantation remain major obstacles. Hence, much hope has turned towards cell-based therapy. Hepatocyte-like cells obtained from embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells bearing multipotent or pluripotent characteristics, as well as cell-based systems, such as organoids, bio-artificial liver devices, bioscaffolds and organ printing are indeed promising. New approaches based on extracellular vesicles are also being investigated as cell substitutes. Extracellular vesicles, through the transfer of bioactive molecules, can modulate liver regeneration and restore hepatic function. This review provides an update on the current state-of-art cell-based and cell-free strategies as alternatives to liver transplantation for patients with end-stage liver diseases.
Keywords: liver diseases; transplantation; cell therapy; extracellular vesicles; organoids; scaffolds; organ printing liver diseases; transplantation; cell therapy; extracellular vesicles; organoids; scaffolds; organ printing
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Cernigliaro, V.; Peluso, R.; Zedda, B.; Silengo, L.; Tolosano, E.; Pellicano, R.; Altruda, F.; Fagoonee, S. Evolving Cell-Based and Cell-Free Clinical Strategies for Treating Severe Human Liver Diseases. Cells 2020, 9, 386.

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