The progressive accumulation of apoptosis-resistant and secretory active senescent cells (SCs) in animal and human aged tissues may limit lifespan and healthspan and lead to age-related diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. Thus, SCs are suggested targets in anti-aging therapy. In the last two decades, a number of nanomaterials have gained much attention as innovative tools in theranostic applications due to their unique properties improving target visualization, drug and gene delivery, controlled drug release, effective diagnosis, and successful therapy. Although the healthcare industry has focused on a plethora of applications of nanomaterials, it remains elusive how nanomaterials may modulate cellular senescence, a hallmark of aging. In this review paper, we consider novel nanotechnology-based strategies for healthspan promotion and the prevention of age-related dysfunctions that are based on the delivery of therapeutic compounds capable to preferentially killing SCs (nano-senolytics) and/or modulating a proinflammatory secretome (nano-senomorphics/nano-senostatics). Recent examples of SC-targeted nanomaterials and the mechanisms underlying different aspects of the nanomaterial-mediated senolysis are presented and discussed.
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