The fabrication of shape-controlled nanocarriers is critical for efficient delivery of biomolecules across the cell membrane. Surface coating of the nanocarrier can improve internalization efficiency. Here, we developed a facile method of silicon nanorod fabrication leading to a controlled size and shape. We then systematically evaluated five surface modifications with membrane proteins from different cancer cell lines including MCF7, MD231, Hela, Panc-PDX, and Panc-1. We demonstrated that silicon nanorods coated with either a homolytic or heterolytic membrane protein coating have significantly improved internalization efficiency as compared with uncoated Si nanorods. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the improved efficiency associated with a modified coating, we analyzed the coating membrane proteins derived from five cell lines with proteomics and identified 601 proteins shared by different cell sources. These proteins may function as cell-substrate adhesion molecules that contribute to the enhanced internalization. We also tested the internalization efficiency of nanorods with different coatings in each of the five cell lines to determine the influencing factors from target cells. We found that the internalization efficiency varied among different target cells, and the ranking of the average efficiency was as follows: Hela > Panc-PDX > MD231 > MCF7 > Panc-1. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that the low internalization efficiency in Panc-1 cells might be associated with the upregulation of ATXN2
, which is a negative regulator of endocytosis. We further demonstrated that ATXN2
knockdown with specific siRNA significantly improved nanorod internalization efficiency in Panc-1 cells suggesting that ATXN2
can be a reference for efficiency prediction of nanoparticle delivery to tumor cells. Thus, we studied the effect of different cancer cell membrane proteins on nanorod uptake efficiencies. These results can improve nanorod internalization to cancer cells, including a fundamental understanding of the internalization efficiency of cancer cells.
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