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Genetic Variation Underpinning ADHD Risk in a Caribbean Community

Grupo de Neurociencias del Caribe, Unidad de Neurociencias Cognitivas, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia
Grupo de Neurociencias del Caribe, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla 080007, Colombia
División de Ingenierías, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia
Grupo de Investigación en Genética, Laboratorio de Genética y Biología Molecular, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia
INPAC Research Group, Fundación Universitaria Sanitas, Bogotá 110211, Colombia
Neuroscience Research Group, University of Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
Neuropsychology and Conduct Research Group, University of San Buenaventura, Medellín 050010, Colombia
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Langone, New York, NY 10016, USA
Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
Grupo de Investigación en Psiquiatría (GIPSI), Departamento de Psiquiatría, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 907;
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that frequently persists into adulthood. Strong evidence from genetic studies indicates that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harboured in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3), SNAP25, FGF1, DRD4, and SLC6A2 genes are associated with ADHD. We genotyped 26 SNPs harboured in genes previously reported to be associated with ADHD and evaluated their potential association in 386 individuals belonging to 113 nuclear families from a Caribbean community in Barranquilla, Colombia, using family-based association tests. SNPs rs362990-SNAP25 (T allele; p = 2.46 × 10−4), rs2282794-FGF1 (A allele; p = 1.33 × 10−2), rs2122642-ADGRL3 (C allele, p = 3.5 × 10−2), and ADGRL3 haplotype CCC (markers rs1565902-rs10001410-rs2122642, OR = 1.74, Ppermuted = 0.021) were significantly associated with ADHD. Our results confirm the susceptibility to ADHD conferred by SNAP25, FGF1, and ADGRL3 variants in a community with a significant African American component, and provide evidence supporting the existence of specific patterns of genetic stratification underpinning the susceptibility to ADHD. Knowledge of population genetics is crucial to define risk and predict susceptibility to disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; ADGRL3; LPHN3; SNAP25; FGF1; genetics; Caribbean community; FBAT; predictive genomics ADHD; ADGRL3; LPHN3; SNAP25; FGF1; genetics; Caribbean community; FBAT; predictive genomics
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Puentes-Rozo, P.J.; Acosta-López, J.E.; Cervantes-Henríquez, M.L.; Martínez-Banfi, M.L.; Mejia-Segura, E.; Sánchez-Rojas, M.; Anaya-Romero, M.E.; Acosta-Hoyos, A.; García-Llinás, G.A.; Mastronardi, C.A.; Pineda, D.A.; Castellanos, F.X.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Vélez, J.I. Genetic Variation Underpinning ADHD Risk in a Caribbean Community. Cells 2019, 8, 907.

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