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Open AccessArticle

Detection of AR-V7 in Liquid Biopsies of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: A Comparison of AR-V7 Analysis in Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Tumor RNA and Exosomes

1
Centre for Circulating Tumour Cell Diagnostics and Research, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, 1 Campbell St, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia
2
South Western Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Goulburn St, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia
3
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
4
Liverpool Hospital, Elizabeth St & Goulburn St, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia
5
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(7), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070688
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
Detection of androgen receptor (AR) variant 7 (AR-V7) is emerging as a clinically important biomarker in castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Detection is possible from tumor tissue, which is often inaccessible in the advanced disease setting. With recent progress in detecting AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) and exosomes from prostate cancer patients, liquid biopsies have emerged as an alternative to tumor biopsy. Therefore, it is important to clarify whether these approaches differ in sensitivity in order to achieve the best possible biomarker characterization for the patient. In this study, blood samples from 44 prostate cancer patients were processed for CTCs and ctRNA with subsequent AR-V7 testing, while exosomal RNA was isolated from 16 samples and tested. Detection of AR and AR-V7 was performed using a highly sensitive droplet digital PCR-based assay. AR and AR-V7 RNA were detectable in CTCs, ctRNA and exosome samples. AR-V7 detection from CTCs showed higher sensitivity and has proven specificity compared to detection from ctRNA and exosomes. Considering that CTCs are almost always present in the advanced prostate cancer setting, CTC samples should be considered the liquid biopsy of choice for the detection of this clinically important biomarker. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; CTC; AR; AR-V7; ctRNA; exosome prostate cancer; CTC; AR; AR-V7; ctRNA; exosome
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Nimir, M.; Ma, Y.; Jeffreys, S.A.; Opperman, T.; Young, F.; Khan, T.; Ding, P.; Chua, W.; Balakrishnar, B.; Cooper, A.; De Souza, P.; Becker, T.M. Detection of AR-V7 in Liquid Biopsies of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: A Comparison of AR-V7 Analysis in Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Tumor RNA and Exosomes. Cells 2019, 8, 688.

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