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Melatonin in Medicinal and Food Plants: Occurrence, Bioavailability, and Health Potential for Humans

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Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, 73400 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé Po. Box 812, Cameroon
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Laboratory of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
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Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
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Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386, Chile
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(7), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070681
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin in Human Health and Diseases)
Melatonin is a widespread molecule among living organisms involved in multiple biological, hormonal, and physiological processes at cellular, tissue, and organic levels. It is well-known for its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, and renowned antioxidant effects, acting as a free radical scavenger, up-regulating antioxidant enzymes, reducing mitochondrial electron leakage, and interfering with proinflammatory signaling pathways. Detected in various medicinal and food plants, its concentration is widely variable. Plant generative organs (e.g., flowers, fruits), and especially seeds, have been proposed as having the highest melatonin concentrations, markedly higher than those found in vertebrate tissues. In addition, seeds are also rich in other substances (lipids, sugars, and proteins), constituting the energetic reserve for a potentially growing seedling and beneficial for the human diet. Thus, given that dietary melatonin is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and transported into the bloodstream, the ingestion of medicinal and plant foods by mammals as a source of melatonin may be conceived as a key step in serum melatonin modulation and, consequently, health promotion. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; bioactive phytochemicals; antioxidants; herbal remedies; tryptophan derivatives; nutraceuticals melatonin; bioactive phytochemicals; antioxidants; herbal remedies; tryptophan derivatives; nutraceuticals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salehi, B.; Sharopov, F.; Fokou, P.V.T.; Kobylinska, A.; Jonge, L.d.; Tadio, K.; Sharifi-Rad, J.; Posmyk, M.M.; Martorell, M.; Martins, N.; Iriti, M. Melatonin in Medicinal and Food Plants: Occurrence, Bioavailability, and Health Potential for Humans. Cells 2019, 8, 681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070681

AMA Style

Salehi B, Sharopov F, Fokou PVT, Kobylinska A, Jonge Ld, Tadio K, Sharifi-Rad J, Posmyk MM, Martorell M, Martins N, Iriti M. Melatonin in Medicinal and Food Plants: Occurrence, Bioavailability, and Health Potential for Humans. Cells. 2019; 8(7):681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070681

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salehi, Bahare; Sharopov, Farukh; Fokou, Patrick V.T.; Kobylinska, Agnieszka; Jonge, Lilian d.; Tadio, Kathryn; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Posmyk, Malgorzata M.; Martorell, Miquel; Martins, Natália; Iriti, Marcello. 2019. "Melatonin in Medicinal and Food Plants: Occurrence, Bioavailability, and Health Potential for Humans" Cells 8, no. 7: 681. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070681

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