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Open AccessReview

Regeneration of Dermis: Scarring and Cells Involved

1
Laboratory of Cell Biology, N.K. Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, 26 Vavilov str., Moscow 119334, Russia
2
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovityanova, Moscow 117997, Russia
3
Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1 Leninskiye gory, Moscow 119234, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060607
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biological Techniques and Cell-Biomaterial Interactions)
There are many studies on certain skin cell specifications and their contribution to wound healing. In this review, we provide an overview of dermal cell heterogeneity and their participation in skin repair, scar formation, and in the composition of skin substitutes. The papillary, reticular, and hair follicle associated fibroblasts differ not only topographically, but also functionally. Human skin has a number of particular characteristics that are different from murine skin. This should be taken into account in experimental procedures. Dermal cells react differently to skin wounding, remodel the extracellular matrix in their own manner, and convert to myofibroblasts to different extents. Recent studies indicate a special role of papillary fibroblasts in the favorable outcome of wound healing and epithelial-mesenchyme interactions. Neofolliculogenesis can substantially reduce scarring. The role of hair follicle mesenchyme cells in skin repair and possible therapeutic applications is discussed. Participation of dermal cell types in wound healing is described, with the addition of possible mechanisms underlying different outcomes in embryonic and adult tissues in the context of cell population characteristics and extracellular matrix composition and properties. Dermal white adipose tissue involvement in wound healing is also overviewed. Characteristics of myofibroblasts and their activity in scar formation is extensively discussed. Cellular mechanisms of scarring and possible ways for its prevention are highlighted. Data on keloid cells are provided with emphasis on their specific characteristics. We also discuss the contribution of tissue tension to the scar formation as well as the criteria and effectiveness of skin substitutes in skin reconstruction. Special attention is given to the properties of skin substitutes in terms of cell composition and the ability to prevent scarring. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin; fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; wound healing; regeneration; scarring; keloid; skin substitutes skin; fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; wound healing; regeneration; scarring; keloid; skin substitutes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rippa, A.L.; Kalabusheva, E.P.; Vorotelyak, E.A. Regeneration of Dermis: Scarring and Cells Involved. Cells 2019, 8, 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060607

AMA Style

Rippa AL, Kalabusheva EP, Vorotelyak EA. Regeneration of Dermis: Scarring and Cells Involved. Cells. 2019; 8(6):607. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060607

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rippa, Alexandra L.; Kalabusheva, Ekaterina P.; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina A. 2019. "Regeneration of Dermis: Scarring and Cells Involved" Cells 8, no. 6: 607. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060607

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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