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MDM2-Mediated p21 Proteasomal Degradation Promotes Fluoride Toxicity in Ameloblasts

Division of Biosciences, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, The Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 436;
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Fluoride overexposure is an environmental health hazard and can cause enamel and skeletal fluorosis. Previously we demonstrated that fluoride increased acetylated-p53 and its downstream target p21 in ameloblast-derived LS8 cells. However, p21 function in fluoride toxicity is not well characterized. This study seeks to gain a better understanding of how p53 down-stream mediators, p21 and MDM2, respond to fluoride toxicity. LS8 cells were treated with NaF with/without MG-132 (proteasome inhibitor) or Nutlin-3a (MDM2 antagonist). NaF treatment for 2–6 h increased phospho-p21, which can inhibit apoptosis. However, phospho-p21 and p21 were decreased by NaF at 24 h, even though p21 mRNA was significantly increased at this time point. MG-132 reversed the fluoride-mediated p21 decrease, indicating that fluoride facilitates p21 proteasomal degradation. MG-132 suppressed fluoride-induced caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting that the proteasome plays a pro-apoptotic role in fluoride toxicity. NaF increased phospho-MDM2 in vitro and in mouse ameloblasts in vivo. Nutlin-3a suppressed NaF-mediated MDM2-p21 binding to reverse p21 degradation which increased phospho-p21. This suppressed apoptosis after 24 h NaF treatment. These results suggest that MDM2-mediated p21 proteasomal degradation with subsequent phospho-p21 attenuation contributes to fluoride-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of MDM2-mediated p21 degradation may be a potential therapeutic target to mitigate fluoride toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: MDM2; p53; p21; ameloblast; fluoride; fluorosis MDM2; p53; p21; ameloblast; fluoride; fluorosis

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Deng, H.; Ikeda, A.; Cui, H.; Bartlett, J.D.; Suzuki, M. MDM2-Mediated p21 Proteasomal Degradation Promotes Fluoride Toxicity in Ameloblasts. Cells 2019, 8, 436.

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