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The Cytoskeleton—A Complex Interacting Meshwork

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse 52, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Cells 2019, 8(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040362
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract

The cytoskeleton of animal cells is one of the most complicated and functionally versatile structures, involved in processes such as endocytosis, cell division, intra-cellular transport, motility, force transmission, reaction to external forces, adhesion and preservation, and adaptation of cell shape. These functions are mediated by three classical cytoskeletal filament types, as follows: Actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. The named filaments form a network that is highly structured and dynamic, responding to external and internal cues with a quick reorganization that is orchestrated on the time scale of minutes and has to be tightly regulated. Especially in brain tumors, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in spreading and migration of tumor cells. As the cytoskeletal organization and regulation is complex and many-faceted, this review aims to summarize the findings about cytoskeletal filament types, including substructures formed by them, such as lamellipodia, stress fibers, and interactions between intermediate filaments, microtubules and actin. Additionally, crucial regulatory aspects of the cytoskeletal filaments and the formed substructures are discussed and integrated into the concepts of cell motility. Even though little is known about the impact of cytoskeletal alterations on the progress of glioma, a final point discussed will be the impact of established cytoskeletal alterations in the cellular behavior and invasion of glioma. View Full-Text
Keywords: actin; microtubules; intermediate filaments; motility; migration; glioma; signaling actin; microtubules; intermediate filaments; motility; migration; glioma; signaling
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Hohmann, T.; Dehghani, F. The Cytoskeleton—A Complex Interacting Meshwork. Cells 2019, 8, 362.

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