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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Butterfly Tribe Aeromachini Tutt (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from China

1
College of Life Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
2
Shanghai Zoological Park, Shanghai 200335, China
3
School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2019, 8(4), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040294
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Genetics)
The butterfly tribe Aeromachini Tutt, 1906 is a large group of skippers. In this study, a total of 10 genera and 45 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and nearly all the species diversity of the group in China, were sequenced for two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear genes (2093 bp). The combined dataset was analyzed with maximum likelihood inference using IQtree. We found strong support for monophyly of Aeromachini from China and support for the most recent accepted species in the tribe. Two paraphyletic genera within Aeromachini are presented and discussed. The divergence time estimates with BEAST and ancestral-area reconstructions with RASP provide a detailed description about the historical biogeography of the Aeromachini from China. The tribe very likely originated from the Hengduan Mountains in the late Ecocene and expanded to the Himalaya Mountains and Central China Regions. A dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that dispersal events have played essential roles in the distribution of extant species, and geological and climatic changes have been important factors driving current distribution patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aeromachini; historical biogeography; phylogenetics; mitochondrial DNA Aeromachini; historical biogeography; phylogenetics; mitochondrial DNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Zhu, J.; Ge, C.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, S.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Endersby, N.M.; Liu, Q.; Yu, W.; Jiang, W. Molecular Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Butterfly Tribe Aeromachini Tutt (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from China. Cells 2019, 8, 294.

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