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Cells 2019, 8(3), 256;

3,5 Diiodo-l-Thyronine (T2) Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Overweight Male Rats Housed at Thermoneutrality

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Urbino University, 61029 Urbino, Italy
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80126 Naples, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
PDF [977 KB, uploaded 18 March 2019]


The conversion of white adipose cells into beige adipose cells is known as browning, a process affecting energy metabolism. It has been shown that 3,5 diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones, stimulates energy expenditure and a reduction in fat mass. In light of the above, the purpose of this study was to test whether in an animal model of fat accumulation, T2 has the potential to activate a browning process and to explore the underlying mechanism. Three groups of rats were used: (i) receiving a standard diet for 14 weeks; (ii) receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks; and (iii) receiving a high fat diet for 10 weeks and being subsequently treated for four weeks with an HFD together with the administration of T2. We showed that T2 was able to induce a browning in the white adipose tissue of T2-treated rats. We also showed that some miRNA (miR133a and miR196a) and MAP kinase 6 were involved in this process. These results indicate that, among others, the browning may be another cellular/molecular mechanism by which T2 exerts its beneficial effects of contrast to overweight and of reduction of fat mass in rats subjected to HFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: browning; energy metabolism; 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine; obesity; microRNA browning; energy metabolism; 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine; obesity; microRNA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Senese, R.; Cioffi, F.; De Matteis, R.; Petito, G.; de Lange, P.; Silvestri, E.; Lombardi, A.; Moreno, M.; Goglia, F.; Lanni, A. 3,5 Diiodo-l-Thyronine (T2) Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Overweight Male Rats Housed at Thermoneutrality. Cells 2019, 8, 256.

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