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Cells 2019, 8(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020121

MicroRNAs at the Interface between Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis as Targets for Bone Regeneration

Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149 Münster, Germany
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory microRNA)
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Abstract

Bone formation and regeneration is a multistep complex process crucially determined by the formation of blood vessels in the growth plate region. This is preceded by the expression of growth factors, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), secreted by osteogenic cells, as well as the corresponding response of endothelial cells, although the exact mechanisms remain to be clarified. Thereby, coordinated coupling between osteogenesis and angiogenesis is initiated and sustained. The precise interplay of these two fundamental processes is crucial during times of rapid bone growth or fracture repair in adults. Deviations in this balance might lead to pathologic conditions such as osteoarthritis and ectopic bone formation. Besides VEGF, the recently discovered important regulatory and modifying functions of microRNAs also support this key mechanism. These comprise two principal categories of microRNAs that were identified with specific functions in bone formation (osteomiRs) and/or angiogenesis (angiomiRs). However, as hypoxia is a major driving force behind bone angiogenesis, a third group involved in this process is represented by hypoxia-inducible microRNAs (hypoxamiRs). This review was focused on the identification of microRNAs that were found to have an active role in osteogenesis as well as angiogenesis to date that were termed “CouplingmiRs (CPLGmiRs)”. Outlined representatives therefore represent microRNAs that already have been associated with an active role in osteogenic-angiogenic coupling or are presumed to have its potential. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms governing bone angiogenesis are of great relevance for improving therapeutic options in bone regeneration, tissue-engineering, and the treatment of bone-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone angiogenesis; osteogenesis; angiogenic-osteogenic coupling; microRNAs; bone regeneration; bone formation; bone tissue-engineering; angiomiRs; osteomiRs; hypoxamiRs bone angiogenesis; osteogenesis; angiogenic-osteogenic coupling; microRNAs; bone regeneration; bone formation; bone tissue-engineering; angiomiRs; osteomiRs; hypoxamiRs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fröhlich, L.F. MicroRNAs at the Interface between Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis as Targets for Bone Regeneration. Cells 2019, 8, 121.

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