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Open AccessReview

Cooperative and Escaping Mechanisms between Circulating Tumor Cells and Blood Constituents

1
GENYO, Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research (Pfizer / University of Granada / Andalusian Regional Government), PTS Granada Av. de la Ilustración, 114, 18016, Granada, Spain
2
Laboratory of Genetic Identification, Department of Legal Medicine, University of Granada, Av. de la Investigación, 11, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Integral Oncology Division, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Av. Dr. Olóriz 16, 18012, Granada, Spain
4
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Av. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, 18014 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111382
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and despite measurable progress in the field, underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) disseminate within the bloodstream, where most of them die due to the attack of the immune system. On the other hand, recent evidence shows active interactions between CTCs and platelets, myeloid cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and other hematopoietic cells that secrete immunosuppressive cytokines, which aid CTCs to evade the immune system and enable metastasis. Platelets, for instance, regulate inflammation, recruit neutrophils, and cause fibrin clots, which may protect CTCs from the attack of Natural Killer cells or macrophages and facilitate extravasation. Recently, a correlation between the commensal microbiota and the inflammatory/immune tone of the organism has been stablished. Thus, the microbiota may affect the development of cancer-promoting conditions. Furthermore, CTCs may suffer phenotypic changes, as those caused by the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, that also contribute to the immune escape and resistance to immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the findings regarding the collaborative biological events among CTCs, immune cells, and microbiome associated to immune escape and metastatic progression.
Keywords: circulating tumor cells; tumor cell dissemination; immune system; microbiome circulating tumor cells; tumor cell dissemination; immune system; microbiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garrido-Navas, C.; de Miguel-Perez, D.; Exposito-Hernandez, J.; Bayarri, C.; Amezcua, V.; Ortigosa, A.; Valdivia, J.; Guerrero, R.; Garcia Puche, J.L.; Lorente, J.A.; Serrano, M.J. Cooperative and Escaping Mechanisms between Circulating Tumor Cells and Blood Constituents. Cells 2019, 8, 1382.

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