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Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiac Remodeling and Regeneration in Physical Exercise

1
Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Munich, Campus Grosshadern and Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich (LMU), 81377 Munich, Germany
2
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich, Munich Heart Alliance (MHA), 80336 Munich, Germany
3
Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich (LMU), 81377 Munich, Germany
4
Institute of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101128
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Research on Cardiology)
Regular physical activity with aerobic and muscle-strengthening training protects against the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease and can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. In the past decade significant advances have been made in identifying mechanisms of cardiomyocyte re-programming and renewal including an enhanced exercise-induced proliferational capacity of cardiomyocytes and its progenitor cells. Various intracellular mechanisms mediating these positive effects on cardiac function have been found in animal models of exercise and will be highlighted in this review. 1) activation of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways including phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), EGFR/JNK/SP-1, nitric oxide (NO)-signaling, and extracellular vesicles; 2) gene expression modulation via microRNAs (miR), in particular via miR-17-3p and miR-222; and 3) modulation of cardiac cellular metabolism and mitochondrial adaption. Understanding the cellular mechanisms, which generate an exercise-induced cardioprotective cellular phenotype with physiological hypertrophy and enhanced proliferational capacity may give rise to novel therapeutic targets. These may open up innovative strategies to preserve cardiac function after myocardial injury as well as in aged cardiac tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical exercise; cardiac cellular regeneration; microRNA (miR); Akt signaling; cardiomyocyte proliferation; cardiac hypertrophy; cardioprotection physical exercise; cardiac cellular regeneration; microRNA (miR); Akt signaling; cardiomyocyte proliferation; cardiac hypertrophy; cardioprotection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schüttler, D.; Clauss, S.; Weckbach, L.T.; Brunner, S. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiac Remodeling and Regeneration in Physical Exercise. Cells 2019, 8, 1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101128

AMA Style

Schüttler D, Clauss S, Weckbach LT, Brunner S. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiac Remodeling and Regeneration in Physical Exercise. Cells. 2019; 8(10):1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schüttler, Dominik; Clauss, Sebastian; Weckbach, Ludwig T.; Brunner, Stefan. 2019. "Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiac Remodeling and Regeneration in Physical Exercise" Cells 8, no. 10: 1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101128

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