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Cells 2018, 7(9), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7090137

Retinoids Issued from Hepatic Stellate Cell Lipid Droplet Loss as Potential Signaling Molecules Orchestrating a Multicellular Liver Injury Response

Institut Pasteur de Lille, The University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1011-EGID, F-59000 Lille, France
Joint first authors.
Joint senior authors.
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Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Droplets in Disease)
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Abstract

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) serve as the main body storage compartment for vitamin A through retinyl ester (RE)-filled lipid droplets (LDs). Upon liver injury, HSCs adopt a myofibroblastic phenotype characterized by an elevated expression of extracellular matrix proteins and a concomitant loss of LDs. On the one hand, LD breakdown has been suggested to provide the energy required for HSC activation into myofibroblast-like cells. On the other hand, this process could mitigate HSC activation following the transformation of released REs into retinoic acids (RAs), ligands for nuclear receptors exerting antifibrotic transcriptional regulatory activities in HSCs. Importantly, RAs may also constitute a means for HSCs to orchestrate the liver response to injury by triggering transcriptional effects in multiple additional surrounding liver cell populations. We envision that new approaches, such as single-cell technologies, will allow to better define how RAs are issued from LD loss in HSCs exert a multicellular control of the liver (patho)physiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver; hepatic stellate cells; lipid droplet; retinoids; liver injury; intercellular communications liver; hepatic stellate cells; lipid droplet; retinoids; liver injury; intercellular communications
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bobowski-Gerard, M.; Zummo, F.P.; Staels, B.; Lefebvre, P.; Eeckhoute, J. Retinoids Issued from Hepatic Stellate Cell Lipid Droplet Loss as Potential Signaling Molecules Orchestrating a Multicellular Liver Injury Response. Cells 2018, 7, 137.

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