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Cells 2018, 7(8), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7080105

A Mitochondrial Encoded Messenger at the Nucleus

1
Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore 117597, Singapore
2
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract

Mitochondria–nucleus (mitonuclear) retrograde signaling via nuclear import of otherwise mitochondrial targeted factors occurs during mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a mechanism that counters mitochondrial and cellular stresses. Other than nuclear encoded proteins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded peptides, such as humanin, are known to have important pro-survival and metabolic regulatory functions. A recent report has indicated that another mtDNA-encoded peptide, the mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c), could translocate into the nucleus upon stress induction. In the nucleus, MOTS-c binds to DNA and regulates the transcription of stress response genes in concert with other transcription factors. This is the first clear example of a mitochondria-derived peptide (MDP) acting in the nucleus to affect transcriptional responses to stress. Thus, MOTS-c may bear some characteristics of a ‘mitokine’ factor that mediates mitohormesis, influencing cell survival as well as organismal health and longevity. View Full-Text
Keywords: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); humanin; mitochondria; mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c); mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); humanin; mitochondria; mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c); mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yong, C.Q.Y.; Tang, B.L. A Mitochondrial Encoded Messenger at the Nucleus. Cells 2018, 7, 105.

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