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Cells 2018, 7(12), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7120252

Different Pathogen Defense Strategies in Arabidopsis: More than Pathogen Recognition

1
College of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000, China
2
Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
3
College of Chemistry and Life Science, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130, China
4
West Rape Research Institute, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guizhou 550008, China
5
Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract

Plants constantly suffer from simultaneous infection by multiple pathogens, which can be divided into biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens, according to their lifestyles. Many studies have contributed to improving our knowledge of how plants can defend against pathogens, involving different layers of defense mechanisms. In this sense, the review discusses: (1) the functions of PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), (2) evidence highlighting the functions of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling pathways downstream of PTI and ETI, and (3) other defense aspects, including many novel small molecules that are involved in defense and phenomena, including systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and priming. In particular, we mainly focus on SA and (JA)/ET-mediated signaling pathways. Interactions among them, including synergistic effects and antagonistic effects, are intensively explored. This might be critical to understanding dynamic disease regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogen defense; PTI; ETI; hormone pathways; small molecules; SAR; priming pathogen defense; PTI; ETI; hormone pathways; small molecules; SAR; priming
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Zhang, W.; Zhao, F.; Jiang, L.; Chen, C.; Wu, L.; Liu, Z. Different Pathogen Defense Strategies in Arabidopsis: More than Pathogen Recognition. Cells 2018, 7, 252.

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