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Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium
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Cells 2016, 5(3), 35;

Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Cell Biology/Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6A, 20520 Turku, Finland
Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rudolf E. Leube
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Cell Mechanics: Novel Functions of Intermediate Filaments)
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Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: keratin; stress; recovery; inflammation; antibiotics; aging; lipopolysaccharide; colitis; phosphorylation; acute; chronic keratin; stress; recovery; inflammation; antibiotics; aging; lipopolysaccharide; colitis; phosphorylation; acute; chronic

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Helenius, T.O.; Antman, C.A.; Asghar, M.N.; Nyström, J.H.; Toivola, D.M. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses. Cells 2016, 5, 35.

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