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Article

Vesicular MicroRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Viral Rebound

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Axe de Recherche Maladies Infectieuses et Immunitaires, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
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Programme de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses, Centre Muraz, Institut National de Santé Publique, Bobo-Dioulasso 01 BP 390, Burkina Faso
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Département de Santé Publique, Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Université Nazi Boni, Bobo-Dioulasso 01 BP 1091, Burkina Faso
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Axe de Recherche Santé des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1S 4L8, Canada
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Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Quebec City, QC G1V 5B3, Canada
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Département de Microbiologie-Infectiologie et d’Immunologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baharak Hosseinkhani
Cells 2022, 11(5), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050859
Received: 11 January 2022 / Revised: 24 February 2022 / Accepted: 24 February 2022 / Published: 2 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicle Subpopulations in Inflammation)
Changes in the cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in response to HIV infection, replication or latency have been reported. Nevertheless, little is known concerning the abundance of miRNA in extracellular vesicles (EVs). In the search for a reliable predictor of viral rebound, we quantified the amount of miR-29a, miR-146a, and miR-155 in two types of plasma extracellular vesicles. Venous blood was collected from 235 ART-treated and ART-naive persons living with HIV (85 with ongoing viral replication, ≥20 copies/mL) and 60 HIV-negative participants at five HIV testing or treatment centers in Burkina Faso. Large and small plasma EVs were purified and counted, and mature miRNA miR-29a, miR-146a, and miR-155 were measured by RT-qPCR. Diagnostic performance of miRNA levels in large and small EVs was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The median duration of HIV infection was 36 months (IQR 14–117). The median duration of ART was 34 months (IQR 13–85). The virus was undetectable in 63.8% of these persons. In the others, viral load ranged from 108 to 33,978 copies/mL (median = 30,032). Large EVs were more abundant in viremic participants than aviremic. All three miRNAs were significantly more abundant in small EVs in persons with detectable HIV RNA, and their expression levels in copies per vesicle were a more reliable indicator of viral replication in ART-treated patients with low viremia (20–1000 copies/mL). HIV replication increased the production of large EVs more than small EVs. Combined with viral load measurement, quantifying EV-associated miRNA abundance relative to the number of vesicles provides a more reliable marker of the viral status. The expression level as copies per small vesicle could predict the viral rebound in ART-treated patients with undetectable viral loads. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; HIV-1; viral replication; microRNA; miR-29a; miR-146a; miR-155; biomarker extracellular vesicles; HIV-1; viral replication; microRNA; miR-29a; miR-146a; miR-155; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bazié, W.W.; Boucher, J.; Traoré, I.T.; Kania, D.; Somé, D.Y.; Alary, M.; Gilbert, C. Vesicular MicroRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Viral Rebound. Cells 2022, 11, 859. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050859

AMA Style

Bazié WW, Boucher J, Traoré IT, Kania D, Somé DY, Alary M, Gilbert C. Vesicular MicroRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Viral Rebound. Cells. 2022; 11(5):859. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazié, Wilfried W., Julien Boucher, Isidore T. Traoré, Dramane Kania, Diane Y. Somé, Michel Alary, and Caroline Gilbert. 2022. "Vesicular MicroRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Viral Rebound" Cells 11, no. 5: 859. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050859

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