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Review

All Roads Lead to Rome: Different Molecular Players Converge to Common Toxic Pathways in Neurodegeneration

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences and The Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Theses authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editor: Naweed I. Syed
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092438
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 12 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Multiple neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are being suggested to have common cellular and molecular pathological mechanisms, characterized mainly by protein misfolding and aggregation. These large inclusions, most likely, represent an end stage of a molecular cascade; however, the soluble misfolded proteins, which take part in earlier steps of this cascade, are the more toxic players. These pathological proteins, which characterize each specific disease, lead to the selective vulnerability of different neurons, likely resulting from a combination of different intracellular mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, proteasome inhibition, excitotoxicity, oxidative damage, defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport, defective axonal transport and neuroinflammation. Damage within these neurons is enhanced by damage from the nonneuronal cells, via inflammatory processes that accelerate the progression of these diseases. In this review, while acknowledging the hallmark proteins which characterize the most common NDDs; we place specific focus on the common overlapping mechanisms leading to disease pathology despite these different molecular players and discuss how this convergence may occur, with the ultimate hope that therapies effective in one disease may successfully translate to another. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; proteostasis; misfolded proteins; ALS; Parkinson’s diseases; Alzheimer’s diseases; Huntington’s disease neurodegenerative diseases; proteostasis; misfolded proteins; ALS; Parkinson’s diseases; Alzheimer’s diseases; Huntington’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Argueti-Ostrovsky, S.; Alfahel, L.; Kahn, J.; Israelson, A. All Roads Lead to Rome: Different Molecular Players Converge to Common Toxic Pathways in Neurodegeneration. Cells 2021, 10, 2438. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092438

AMA Style

Argueti-Ostrovsky S, Alfahel L, Kahn J, Israelson A. All Roads Lead to Rome: Different Molecular Players Converge to Common Toxic Pathways in Neurodegeneration. Cells. 2021; 10(9):2438. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092438

Chicago/Turabian Style

Argueti-Ostrovsky, Shirel, Leenor Alfahel, Joy Kahn, and Adrian Israelson. 2021. "All Roads Lead to Rome: Different Molecular Players Converge to Common Toxic Pathways in Neurodegeneration" Cells 10, no. 9: 2438. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092438

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