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Review

Emerging Role and Clinicopathological Significance of AEG-1 in Different Cancer Types: A Concise Review

1
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, India
2
Department of Oncology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
3
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
4
Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Orebro University, SE-701 82 Orebro, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ciro Isidoro and Danny N. Dhanasekaran
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061497
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-to-Cell Metabolic Cross-Talk in Physiology and Pathology)
Tumor breakthrough is driven by genetic or epigenetic variations which assist in initiation, migration, invasion and metastasis of tumors. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) protein has risen recently as the crucial factor in malignancies and plays a potential role in diverse complex oncogenic signaling cascades. AEG-1 has multiple roles in tumor growth and development and is found to be involved in various signaling pathways of: (i) Ha-ras and PI3K/AKT; (ii) the NF-κB; (iii) the ERK or mitogen-activated protein kinase and Wnt or β-catenin and (iv) the Aurora-A kinase. Recent studies have confirmed that in all the hallmarks of cancers, AEG-1 plays a key functionality including progression, transformation, sustained angiogenesis, evading apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. Clinical studies have supported that AEG-1 is actively intricated in tumor growth and progression which includes esophageal squamous cell, gastric, colorectal, hepatocellular, gallbladder, breast, prostate and non-small cell lung cancers, as well as renal cell carcinomas, melanoma, glioma, neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. Existing studies have reported that AEG-1 expression has been induced by Ha-ras through intrication of PI3K/AKT signaling. Conversely, AEG-1 also activates PI3K/AKT pathway and modulates the defined subset of downstream target proteins via crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Hedgehog signaling cascade which further plays a crucial role in metastasis. Thus, AEG-1 may be employed as a biomarker to discern the patients of those who are likely to get aid from AEG-1-targeted medication. AEG-1 may play as an effective target to repress tumor development, occlude metastasis, and magnify the effectiveness of treatments. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of AEG-1 in the process of carcinogenesis and its involvement in regulation of crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Hedgehog signaling. We also highlight the multifaceted functions, expression, clinicopathological significance and molecular inhibitors of AEG-1 in various cancer types. View Full-Text
Keywords: AEG-1; biomarker; cancer; clinicopathology; inhibitor; pathway; therapeutics AEG-1; biomarker; cancer; clinicopathology; inhibitor; pathway; therapeutics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sriramulu, S.; Sun, X.-F.; Malayaperumal, S.; Ganesan, H.; Zhang, H.; Ramachandran, M.; Banerjee, A.; Pathak, S. Emerging Role and Clinicopathological Significance of AEG-1 in Different Cancer Types: A Concise Review. Cells 2021, 10, 1497. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061497

AMA Style

Sriramulu S, Sun X-F, Malayaperumal S, Ganesan H, Zhang H, Ramachandran M, Banerjee A, Pathak S. Emerging Role and Clinicopathological Significance of AEG-1 in Different Cancer Types: A Concise Review. Cells. 2021; 10(6):1497. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061497

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sriramulu, Sushmitha, Xiao-Feng Sun, Sarubala Malayaperumal, Harsha Ganesan, Hong Zhang, Murugesan Ramachandran, Antara Banerjee, and Surajit Pathak. 2021. "Emerging Role and Clinicopathological Significance of AEG-1 in Different Cancer Types: A Concise Review" Cells 10, no. 6: 1497. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061497

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