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Article

Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Content in Amniotic and Tracheal Fluids of Fetuses with Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Undergoing Fetal Intervention

1
Fetal Medicine and Surgery Service, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
EPIGET LAB, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Institute for Biomedical Technologies (ITB), National Research Council (CNR), Segrate, 20054 Milan, Italy
4
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alice Conigliaro and Carla Cicchini
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061493
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Non-Coding RNAs)
Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk of postnatal mortality due to lung hypoplasia and arterial pulmonary hypertension. In severe cases, prenatal intervention by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) can improve survival by accelerating lung growth. However, postnatal mortality remains in the range of about 50% despite fetal treatment, and there is currently no clear explanation for this different clinical response to FETO. We evaluated the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and associated microRNA expression in amniotic and tracheal fluids of fetuses with CDH undergoing FETO, and we examined the association between molecular findings and postnatal survival. We observed a higher count of EVs in the amniotic fluid of non-survivors and in the tracheal fluid sampled in utero at the time of reversal of tracheal occlusion, suggesting a pro-inflammatory lung reactivity that is already established in utero and that could be associated with a worse postnatal clinical course. In addition, we observed differential regulation of four EV-enclosed miRNAs (miR-379-5p, miR-889-3p; miR-223-3p; miR-503-5p) in relation to postnatal survival, with target genes possibly involved in altered lung development. Future research should investigate molecular therapeutic agents targeting differentially regulated miRNAs to normalize their expression and potentially improve clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; miRNA; fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) extracellular vesicles; miRNA; fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fabietti, I.; Nardi, T.; Favero, C.; Dioni, L.; Cantone, L.; Pergoli, L.; Hoxha, M.; Pinatel, E.; Mosca, F.; Bollati, V.; Persico, N. Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Content in Amniotic and Tracheal Fluids of Fetuses with Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Undergoing Fetal Intervention. Cells 2021, 10, 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061493

AMA Style

Fabietti I, Nardi T, Favero C, Dioni L, Cantone L, Pergoli L, Hoxha M, Pinatel E, Mosca F, Bollati V, Persico N. Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Content in Amniotic and Tracheal Fluids of Fetuses with Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Undergoing Fetal Intervention. Cells. 2021; 10(6):1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061493

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fabietti, Isabella, Tiago Nardi, Chiara Favero, Laura Dioni, Laura Cantone, Laura Pergoli, Mirjam Hoxha, Eva Pinatel, Fabio Mosca, Valentina Bollati, and Nicola Persico. 2021. "Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Content in Amniotic and Tracheal Fluids of Fetuses with Severe Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Undergoing Fetal Intervention" Cells 10, no. 6: 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061493

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