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Review

The Genomic Landscape of Thyroid Cancer Tumourigenesis and Implications for Immunotherapy

by 1,2,3,*, 1,3,4, 4,5, 1,4,6, 7 and 1,2,3,4,8,9,10
1
Discipline of Pathology, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown 2560, Australia
2
Department of Anatomical Pathology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool 2170, Australia
3
Cancer Pathology Laboratory, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool 2170, Australia
4
CONCERT Biobank, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool 2170, Australia
5
Surgical Innovation Unit, Department of Surgery, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia
6
Head and Neck Surgery, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool 2170, Australia
7
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool 2170, Australia
8
South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Liverpool 2170, Australia
9
Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050, Australia
10
Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown 2050, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Karamichos
Cells 2021, 10(5), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051082
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Cellular Pathology)
Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy that comprises mostly indolent differentiated cancers (DTCs) and less frequently aggressive poorly differentiated (PDTC) or anaplastic cancers (ATCs) with high mortality. Utilisation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and advanced sequencing data analysis can aid in understanding the multi-step progression model in the development of thyroid cancers and their metastatic potential at a molecular level, promoting a targeted approach to further research and development of targeted treatment options including immunotherapy, especially for the aggressive variants. Tumour initiation and progression in thyroid cancer occurs through constitutional activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through mutations in BRAF, RAS, mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and/or receptor tyrosine kinase fusions/translocations, and other genetic aberrations acquired in a stepwise manner. This review provides a summary of the recent genetic aberrations implicated in the development and progression of thyroid cancer and implications for immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid cancer; genomics; immunotherapy; microenvironment; PD-L1 thyroid cancer; genomics; immunotherapy; microenvironment; PD-L1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, A.; Ham, J.; Po, J.W.; Niles, N.; Roberts, T.; Lee, C.S. The Genomic Landscape of Thyroid Cancer Tumourigenesis and Implications for Immunotherapy. Cells 2021, 10, 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051082

AMA Style

Singh A, Ham J, Po JW, Niles N, Roberts T, Lee CS. The Genomic Landscape of Thyroid Cancer Tumourigenesis and Implications for Immunotherapy. Cells. 2021; 10(5):1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Amandeep, Jeehoon Ham, Joseph W. Po, Navin Niles, Tara Roberts, and Cheok S. Lee. 2021. "The Genomic Landscape of Thyroid Cancer Tumourigenesis and Implications for Immunotherapy" Cells 10, no. 5: 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10051082

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