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Article

Treatment with Bacterial Biologics Promotes Healthy Aging and Traumatic Brain Injury Responses in Adult Drosophila, Modeling the Gut–Brain Axis and Inflammation Responses

1
Department of Biology, Shiley BioScience Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
2
Department Chemistry and Biohemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari
Cells 2021, 10(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040900
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging: The Immunology of Aging)
Drosophila are widely used to study neural development, immunity, and inflammatory pathways and processes associated with the gut–brain axis. Here, we examine the response of adult Drosophila given an inactive bacteriologic (IAB; proprietary lysate preparation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, ReseT®) and a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, LGG). In vitro, the IAB activates a subset of conserved Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide-binding, oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD) receptors in human cells, and oral administration slowed the age-related decline of adult Drosophila locomotor behaviors. On average, IAB-treated flies lived significantly longer (+23%) and had lower neural aggregate profiles. Different IAB dosages also improved locomotor function and longevity profiles after traumatic brain injury (TBI) exposure. Mechanistically, short-term IAB and LGG treatment altered baseline nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ) signaling profiles in neural and abdominal tissues. Overall, at select dosages, IAB and LGG exposure has a positive impact on Drosophila longevity, neural aging, and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related responses, with IAB showing greater benefit. This includes severe TBI (sTBI) responses, where IAB treatment was protective and LGG increased acute mortality profiles. This work shows that Drosophila are an effective model for testing bacterial-based biologics, that IAB and probiotic treatments promote neuronal health and influence inflammatory pathways in neural and immune tissues. Therefore, targeted IAB treatments are a novel strategy to promote the appropriate function of the gut–brain axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut–brain axis; inactive bacteriologic (IAB); probiotic; neural inflammaging; traumatic brain injury (TBI); Toll-like receptor (TLR); nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD2); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ); pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP); anti-microbial peptide (AMP) gut–brain axis; inactive bacteriologic (IAB); probiotic; neural inflammaging; traumatic brain injury (TBI); Toll-like receptor (TLR); nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD2); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ); pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP); anti-microbial peptide (AMP)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molina, B.; Mastroianni, J.; Suarez, E.; Soni, B.; Forsberg, E.; Finley, K. Treatment with Bacterial Biologics Promotes Healthy Aging and Traumatic Brain Injury Responses in Adult Drosophila, Modeling the Gut–Brain Axis and Inflammation Responses. Cells 2021, 10, 900. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040900

AMA Style

Molina B, Mastroianni J, Suarez E, Soni B, Forsberg E, Finley K. Treatment with Bacterial Biologics Promotes Healthy Aging and Traumatic Brain Injury Responses in Adult Drosophila, Modeling the Gut–Brain Axis and Inflammation Responses. Cells. 2021; 10(4):900. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040900

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molina, Brandon, Jessica Mastroianni, Ema Suarez, Brijinder Soni, Erica Forsberg, and Kim Finley. 2021. "Treatment with Bacterial Biologics Promotes Healthy Aging and Traumatic Brain Injury Responses in Adult Drosophila, Modeling the Gut–Brain Axis and Inflammation Responses" Cells 10, no. 4: 900. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040900

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