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Review

Immune-Mediated Retinal Vasculitis in Posterior Uveitis and Experimental Models: The Leukotriene (LT)B4-VEGF Axis

1
UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK
2
Akari Therapeutics Plc, London EC1V 9EL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karl-Wilhelm Koch
Cells 2021, 10(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020396
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published: 15 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Signalling)
Retinal vascular diseases have distinct, complex and multifactorial pathogeneses yet share several key pathophysiological aspects including inflammation, vascular permeability and neovascularisation. In non-infectious posterior uveitis (NIU), retinal vasculitis involves vessel leakage leading to retinal enlargement, exudation, and macular oedema. Neovascularisation is not a common feature in NIU, however, detection of the major angiogenic factor—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)—in intraocular fluids in animal models of uveitis may be an indication for a role for this cytokine in a highly inflammatory condition. Suppression of VEGF-A by directly targeting the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor (BLT1) pathway indicates a connection between leukotrienes (LTs), which have prominent roles in initiating and propagating inflammatory responses, and VEGF-A in retinal inflammatory diseases. Further research is needed to understand how LTs interact with intraocular cytokines in retinal inflammatory diseases to guide the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting both inflammatory mediator pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinal vasculitis; uveitis; EAU; VEGF; LTB4; BLT1; inflammation; neovascularisation retinal vasculitis; uveitis; EAU; VEGF; LTB4; BLT1; inflammation; neovascularisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eskandarpour, M.; Nunn, M.A.; Weston-Davies, W.; Calder, V.L. Immune-Mediated Retinal Vasculitis in Posterior Uveitis and Experimental Models: The Leukotriene (LT)B4-VEGF Axis. Cells 2021, 10, 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020396

AMA Style

Eskandarpour M, Nunn MA, Weston-Davies W, Calder VL. Immune-Mediated Retinal Vasculitis in Posterior Uveitis and Experimental Models: The Leukotriene (LT)B4-VEGF Axis. Cells. 2021; 10(2):396. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eskandarpour, Malihe, Miles A. Nunn, Wynne Weston-Davies, and Virginia L. Calder. 2021. "Immune-Mediated Retinal Vasculitis in Posterior Uveitis and Experimental Models: The Leukotriene (LT)B4-VEGF Axis" Cells 10, no. 2: 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020396

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