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Pathophysiological Responses of Pinna nobilis Individuals Enlightens the Etiology of Mass Mortality Situation in the Mediterranean Populations

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Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Macedonia, 53100 Florina, Greece
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National Reference Laboratory for Mollusc Diseases, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Department of Animal Production Fisheries & Aquaculture, University of Patras, 26504 Mesolonghi, Greece
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Laboratory of Zoology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander E. Kalyuzhny
Cells 2021, 10(11), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112838
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
Due to the rapid decrease of Pinna nobilis populations during the previous decades, this bivalve species, endemic in the Mediterranean Sea, is characterized as ‘critically endangered’. In addition to human pressures, various pathogen infections have resulted in extended reduction, even population extinction. While Haplosporidium pinnae is characterized as one of the major causative agents, mass mortalities have also been attributed to Mycobacterium sp. and Vibrio spp. Due to limited knowledge concerning the physiological response of infected P. nobilis specimens against various pathogens, this study’s aim was to investigate to pathophysiological response of P. nobilis individuals, originating from mortality events in the Thermaikos Gulf and Lesvos and Limnos islands (Greece), and their correlation to different potential pathogens detected in the diseased animals. In isolated tissues, several cellular stress indicators of the heat shock and immune response, apoptosis and autophagy, were examined. Despite the complexity and limitations in the study of P. nobilis mortality events, the present investigation demonstrates the cumulative negative effect of co-infection additionally with H. pinnae in comparison to the non-presence of haplosporidian parasite. In addition, impacts of global climate change affecting physiological performance and immune responses result in more vulnerable populations in infectious diseases, a phenomenon which may intensify in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinna nobilis; mortality; pathogens; Haplosporidium pinnae; Mycobacterium sp.; Vibrio spp.; physiology; autophagy; cellular death; inflammation Pinna nobilis; mortality; pathogens; Haplosporidium pinnae; Mycobacterium sp.; Vibrio spp.; physiology; autophagy; cellular death; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lattos, A.; Feidantsis, K.; Georgoulis, I.; Giantsis, I.A.; Karagiannis, D.; Theodorou, J.A.; Staikou, A.; Michaelidis, B. Pathophysiological Responses of Pinna nobilis Individuals Enlightens the Etiology of Mass Mortality Situation in the Mediterranean Populations. Cells 2021, 10, 2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112838

AMA Style

Lattos A, Feidantsis K, Georgoulis I, Giantsis IA, Karagiannis D, Theodorou JA, Staikou A, Michaelidis B. Pathophysiological Responses of Pinna nobilis Individuals Enlightens the Etiology of Mass Mortality Situation in the Mediterranean Populations. Cells. 2021; 10(11):2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112838

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lattos, Athanasios, Konstantinos Feidantsis, Ioannis Georgoulis, Ioannis A. Giantsis, Dimitrios Karagiannis, John A. Theodorou, Alexandra Staikou, and Basile Michaelidis. 2021. "Pathophysiological Responses of Pinna nobilis Individuals Enlightens the Etiology of Mass Mortality Situation in the Mediterranean Populations" Cells 10, no. 11: 2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112838

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