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Review

Developing New Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccines: Focus on Adjuvants

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2021, 10(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010078
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Immunology in Bacterial Vaccine Discovery)
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that sits in the top 10 leading causes of death in the world today and is the current leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Although there is a licensed vaccine against TB, the Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, it has several limitations, namely its high variability of efficacy in the population and low protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. New vaccines for TB are needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the development and implementation of new TB vaccines to be a priority. Subunit vaccines are promising candidates since they can overcome safety concerns and optimize antigen targeting. Nevertheless, these vaccines need adjuvants in their formulation in order to increase immunogenicity, decrease the needed antigen dose, ensure a targeted delivery and optimize the antigens delivery and interaction with the immune cells. This review aims to focus on adjuvants being used in new formulations of TB vaccines, namely candidates already in clinical trials and others in preclinical development. Although no correlates of protection are defined, most research lines in the field of TB vaccination focus on T-helper 1 (Th1) type of response, namely polyfunctional CD4+ cells expressing simultaneously IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 cytokines, and also Th17 responses. Accordingly, most of the adjuvants reviewed here are able to promote such responses. In the future, it might be advantageous to consider a wider array of immune parameters to better understand the role of adjuvants in TB immunity and establish correlates of protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccines; adjuvants; infectious diseases; tuberculosis vaccines; adjuvants; infectious diseases; tuberculosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco, A.R.; Peri, F. Developing New Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccines: Focus on Adjuvants. Cells 2021, 10, 78. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010078

AMA Style

Franco AR, Peri F. Developing New Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccines: Focus on Adjuvants. Cells. 2021; 10(1):78. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco, Ana R., and Francesco Peri. 2021. "Developing New Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccines: Focus on Adjuvants" Cells 10, no. 1: 78. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010078

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