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Open AccessArticle

ACC Deaminase Producing PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Agrobacterium fabrum along with Biochar Improve Wheat Productivity under Drought Stress

1
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
2
Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3
Department of Soil Science, University College of Agriculture & Environment Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
4
Department of Geography, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(7), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9070343
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
Drought stress retards wheat plant’s vegetative growth and physiological processes and results in low productivity. A stressed plant synthesizes ethylene which inhibits root elongation; however, the enzyme 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) deaminase catabolizes ethylene produced under water stress. Therefore, the ACC deaminase producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used to enhance crop productivity under drought stress. Biochar (BC) is an organically active and potentially nutrient-rich amendment that, when applied to the soil, can increase pore volume, cation exchange capacity and nutrient retention and bioavailability. We conducted a field experiment to study the effect of drought tolerant, ACC deaminase producing PGPR (with and without timber waste BC) on plant growth and yield parameters under drought stress. Two PGPR strains, Agrobacterium fabrum or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were applied individually and in combination with 30 Mg ha−1 BC under three levels of irrigation, i.e., recommended four irrigations (4I), three irrigations (3I) and two irrigations (2I). Combined application of B. amyloliquefaciens and 30 Mg ha−1 BC under 3I, significantly increased growth and yield traits of wheat: grain yield (36%), straw yield (50%), biological yield (40%). The same soil application under 2I resulted in greater increases in several of the growth and yield traits: grain yield (77%), straw yield (75%), above- and below-ground biomasses (77%), as compared to control; however, no significant increases in chlorophyll a, b or total, and photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in response to individual inoculation of a PGPR strain (without BC) were observed. Therefore, we suggest that the combined soil application of B. amyloliquefaciens and BC more effectively mitigates drought stress and improves wheat productivity as compared to any of the individual soil applications tested in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; biofertilizers; gas exchange attributes; wheat; water stress; yield attributes activated carbon; biofertilizers; gas exchange attributes; wheat; water stress; yield attributes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zafar-ul-Hye, M.; Danish, S.; Abbas, M.; Ahmad, M.; Munir, T.M. ACC Deaminase Producing PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Agrobacterium fabrum along with Biochar Improve Wheat Productivity under Drought Stress. Agronomy 2019, 9, 343.

AMA Style

Zafar-ul-Hye M, Danish S, Abbas M, Ahmad M, Munir TM. ACC Deaminase Producing PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Agrobacterium fabrum along with Biochar Improve Wheat Productivity under Drought Stress. Agronomy. 2019; 9(7):343.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zafar-ul-Hye, Muhammad; Danish, Subhan; Abbas, Mazhar; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Munir, Tariq M. 2019. "ACC Deaminase Producing PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Agrobacterium fabrum along with Biochar Improve Wheat Productivity under Drought Stress" Agronomy 9, no. 7: 343.

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