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Food Phosphorus Flows in a Low-Income, Food- and Phosphorus-Deficient Country

1
Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021, China
2
International School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
4
College of Food and Biological Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, China
5
Department of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Quanzhou Normal University, 398 Donghai Street, Quanzhou 362000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(5), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9050212
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract

We present a quantitative analysis of phosphorus (P) flows that characterize the food production-consumption system metabolism in a low-income, food, and phosphorus deficient country, using Comoros, a small African island state, as an example from the year 2000 to 2011. The data were interpreted in terms of the connections between crop production, livestock breeding, human consumption, and soil stock, using the substance flow analysis (SFA) model. We found that the total P input into Comoros totaled 132.37 t in 2000 and 270.60 t in 2011, whereas the total P output totaled 567.40 t in 2000 and 702.29 t in 2011. Farmers in Comoros are cropping with little or no P input, resulting in a soil P deficiency; it varied from 435.03 t in 2000 to 431.69 t in 2011. In addition, the Phosphorus Use Efficiencies (PUEs) of plant and animal production in Comoros were 131.80% and 14%, respectively, in 2011. This is the first SFA of a small island state, and the lack of a closed P loop is a major issue for the country in terms of P security and this has not changed between 2000 and 2011. This study proposes crucial solutions for improving the PUE through recycling and reusing animal manure, human excreta, and household solid organic waste. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phosphorus flows; food production; food consumption; substance flow analysis; Comoros Phosphorus flows; food production; food consumption; substance flow analysis; Comoros
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Kamal, T.S.; Huang, Y.; Huang, C.; Xu, S.; Bing, G.; Cui, S. Food Phosphorus Flows in a Low-Income, Food- and Phosphorus-Deficient Country. Agronomy 2019, 9, 212.

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