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Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040178

Macronutrients in Soil and Wheat as Affected by a Long-Term Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization in Winter Wheat–Fallow Rotation

1
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
3
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Adams, OR 97810, USA
4
Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract

The insights gained from the long-term impacts of tillage and N fertilization on soil fertility are crucial for the development of sustainable cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of 75 years of tillage and N fertilization on macronutrients in soil and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues grown in a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation. The experiment included three types of tillage (disc, DP; sweep, SW; and moldboard, MP) and five N application rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha−1). Soil and tissue samples were analyzed for the concentration of total N, S, and C, Mehlich III extractable P, K, Mg, Ca in the soil, and the total concentration of the same nutrients in wheat tissue. Soil N concentration was significantly greater under DP (1.10 g kg−1) than under MP (1.03 g kg−1). The P concentration in upper 20 cm soil depth increased with increased N rates. Comparison of experiment plots to a nearby undisturbed pasture revealed a decline of P (32%), SOC (34%), Mg (77%), and Ca (86%) in the top 10 cm soil depth. The results suggest that DP with high N rates could reduce the macronutrient decline in soil and plant over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; dryland; magnesium; phosphorus; potassium; soil pH calcium; dryland; magnesium; phosphorus; potassium; soil pH
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    Description: Figure S1: Long-term effect of tillage (left) and N application rates (right) on pH in four soil depths (cm) under winter wheat-fallow system. Plow: moldboard tillage; Sweep: sweep tillage; and Disc: disc tillage. The bars sharing the same letters within each soil depths are not significantly different at 0.05 probability level., Figure S2: Effect of different inorganic N application rates and tillage systems on the accumulation of N and K in wheat straw in winter wheat-fallow cropping system in 2015. Plow: moldboard tillage; Sweep: sweep tillage; and Disc: disc tillage. The bars sharing the same letters are not significantly different at 0.05 probability level., Figure S3: Effect of different rates of inorganic N applications on the accumulation of Ca and Mg in wheat straw in winter wheat-fallow cropping system in 2015. The bar sharing the same letters are not significantly different at 0.05 probability level. Table S1: ANOVA for macronutrients in soil and soil pH as influenced by 75 years of tillage, N rate, and depth. Significant effects (p < 0.05) that require multiple means comparison are shown in bold., Table S2: ANOVA for N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg in wheat straw and grain as influenced by tillage, year and N rates. Significant effects (p < 0.05) that require multiple means comparison are shown in bold.
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Shiwakoti, S.; Zheljazkov, V.D.; Gollany, H.T.; Kleber, M.; Xing, B. Macronutrients in Soil and Wheat as Affected by a Long-Term Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization in Winter Wheat–Fallow Rotation. Agronomy 2019, 9, 178.

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