Avocado Production and Local Trade in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania: A Case of an Emerging Trade Commodity from Horticulture
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Locations and Sampling
2.2. Method for Data Collection
2.3. Data Analysis
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Gender Pattern in Avocado Growing and Local Trade
3.2. Orchards and Types of Avocado Grown
3.3. Fruit Yield Estimate and Avocado Value Chain
3.4. Challenges Encountered by Smallholder Avocado Growers and Local Traders
5. Limitations of this Research
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary File 1
Conflicts of Interest
|District||AUAC*||Reasons Behind Avocado Farming in the District||Crops Intercropped with Avocado**||District Plans for |
|Mbeya cityb||141||- High internal and external market demand|
- Favorable growing environment
- Being a cash crop
|Maize, cassava, potato, banana, pumpkin, cocoyam, bean, pea, amaranth, guava, pawpaw, plum, mango, custard apple, coffee, sugarcane||-Encourage each homestead to have at least four avocado plants|
-Use avocado trees for food, as ornamental and for environmental protection
-Link growers with internal and external traders
-Encourage the expansion of the avocado growing industry
|Mbeya ruralc||- A habit or tradition of having avocado trees around a homestead|
- High internal and external market demand
- Favorable growing environment
|Maize, banana, sweet potato, cocoyam, pumpkin, bean, amaranth, tomato, lemon, orange, mango, plum, guava, pawpaw, coffee, sugarcane, pyrethrum, tobacco||-Facilitate conditions for growing more avocado for food and as a cash crop|
-Create avocado farming groups and train them to improve their practical farming skills
-Train farm establishment
|Rungweb||1508||- Presence of RAC in Tukuyu, Rungwe||Maize, sweet potato, cassava, pumpkin, cocoyam, banana, soybean, bean, amaranth, olive, oil palm, lemon, pawpaw, mango, guava, pension, pineapple, strawberry, tea, coffee, cocoa, ginger, cardamom, sugarcane, sisal,||- Not much plans due to budget limitation|
- There is little chance for expansion of avocado growing due to land shortage
|Busokeloa||inad||- Information not available||Banana, maize, sweet potato, cocoyam, bean, sunflower, groundnut African eggplant, lemon, oil palm, tea, coffee, cocoa, ginger, mango, guava, breadfruit, apple, orange, pawpaw, cardamom, lemongrass, dill, sugarcane,||- Information not available|
|Mbozib||1184.2||- Being a cash and food crop|
- As an alternative agricultural crop
- Source of revenue to district council
|Maize, banana, cocoyam, sunflower, beans, mango, coffee,||- Shift from intercropping to monoculture|
- Shift to commercial cultivars due to the high demand in international markets and high yield
|Njombe urbana||885||- High market demand especially from Kenyan traders|
- Influence from avocado growers’ network that was formed in 2016
|Maize, cassava, cocoyam, pumpkin, lemon, apple, banana, sugarcane, sisal,||- Expand avocado growing area|
- Provide up to date seminars for agricultural extension officers
- Establishing avocado oil processing
|Njombe rurala||inad||- Information not available||Maize, banana, cocoyam, pumpkin, sunflower, pawpaw, mango, guava, soursop, tea, coffee, sugarcane,||- Information not available|
|Wanging’ombeb||838.7||- Influence from RAC|
- Influence from LIMA KWANZA Company
- High market demand
|Maize, sweet potato, pumpkin, banana, bean, pea, sunflower, apple, custard apple, plum||- Expand avocado growing area: 1 acre for students, 1 acre for staff in secondary school, 10 ha for the district council|
- Establish a platform for taking care of avocados
- Establish avocado oil processing
- Radha, T.; Mathew, L. Fruit Crops (Horticulture Science Series); New India Publishing Agency: New Delhi, India, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Purseglove, J.W. Tropical crops: Dicotyledons; John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1968. [Google Scholar]
- Schaffer, B.A.; Wolstenholme, B.N.; Whiley, A.W. The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses; CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Fairchild, D. Personal recollections of George B. Cellon, horticultural pioneer of south Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hortic. Soc. 1945, 58, 205–209. [Google Scholar]
- Kelly, G. A Cultural History of the Avocado. Available online: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcthree/article/87a56e5c-6d41-4495-9e22-523efb6b4cb0 (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Holy Guacamole: Increased EU Avocado Consumption Is No Picnic for Suppliers. Available online: https://research.rabobank.com/far/en/sectors/regional-food-agri/Increased-EU-Avocado-Consumption.html?qsl_reqcnt=1 (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Premack, R. The Avocado Craze Hits Asia. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelpremack/2017/10/31/the-avocado-craze-hits-asia/#7cd62a0b6e5f (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Hancock, T. Avocado Imports Soar as China Develops Taste for ‘Butter Fruit’. Available online: https://www.ft.com/content/97340c8a-2652-11e7-8691-d5f7e0cd0a16 (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Shahbandeh, M. Consumers’ Main Drivers for Buying Avocados in the United States in 2018. Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/317753/us-consumers--main-drivers-for-buying-avocados/ (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Eyres, L.; Sherpa, N.; Hendriks, G. Avocado oil: A new edible oil from Australasia. Lipid Technol. 2001, 13, 84–88. [Google Scholar]
- Kawagishi, H.; Fukumoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; He, P.; Arimoto, H.; Matsuzawa, T.; Arimoto, Y.; Suganuma, H.; Inakuma, T.; Sugiyama, K. Liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (Persea americana). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 2215–2221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Birkbeck, J. Oils and fats: Health benefits from avocado oil. Food N. Z. 2002, 2, 40–42. [Google Scholar]
- Ding, H.; Chin, Y.W.; Kinghorn, A.D.; D’ambrosio, S.M. Chemopreventive Characteristics of Avocado Fruit. Semin Cancer Biol. 2007, 386–394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Shahbandeh, M. Domestic Avocado Consumption in the United States from 1985 to 2018 (in Million Pounds). Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/591263/average-avocado-consumption-us-per-week/ (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Naamani, G. Global Trends in main Avocado Market. In Proceedings of the VII World Avocado Congress 2011 (Actas VII Congreso Mundial del Aguacate 2011), Cairns, Australia, 5–9 September 2011; Available online: http://www.avocadosource.com/WAC7/Section_16/NaamaniGabi2011b.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- World Avocado Organization. Avocado Consumption in Europe and Beyond. 2018. Available online: https://avocadofruitoflife.com/wao/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/20180727_WAO_Factsheet_Consumption.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Searle, F. ‘Europe Can Reach US Avo Volumes in Eight Years,’ Says WAO. 2019. Available online: http://www.fruitnet.com/eurofruit/article/178799/europe-can-reach-us-avo-volumes-in-eight-years (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Central Intelligency Agency. Tanzania. In the World Fact Book. 2016. Available online: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html (accessed on 10 November 2018).
- Mutayoba, V.; Ngaruko, D. Assessing tomato farming and marketing among smallholders in high potential agricultural areas of Tanzania. Int. J. Econ. Commer. Manag. 2018, 6, 577–590. [Google Scholar]
- HODECT. Tanzania Horticultural Development Strategy 2012–2021; Horticultural Development Council of Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Mashinda, O.; Kazi, V.; Mkenda, B. Strengthening micro-enterprises in Tanzania: The Case of small-scale vegetable farmers in Arusha; Policy Dialogue Series No. 14; ESRF: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Delgado, C.L.; Siamwalla, A. Rural economy and farm income diversification in developing countries. In Proceedings of the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Sacramento, CA, USA, 10–16 August 1997; International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Alem, K. Opportunities and Challenges of Vegetable Marketing in Kilte-Awlaelo Woreda. Master’s Thesis, Mekelle University, Makelle, Ethiopia, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Regional Commissioner’s Office. A Brief Report on Potato Production in Njombe Region; Regional Commissioner’s Office: Njombe, Tanzania, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Weinberger, K.; Msuya, J. Indigenous Vegetables in Tanzania: Significance and Prospects; AVRDC-World Vegetable Center: Tainan, Taiwan, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Mbiha, E.R.; Nyange, D.A.; Ashimogo, G. Agricultural Marketing Information Extension, Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Agricultural Commodities; TARP IISUA Project; Sokoine University of Agriculture: Morogoro, Tanzania, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Mwanakatwe, T. Tatizo la Soko la Matunda Tanga, Lawadidimiza Wakulima. Nipashe Newsp. 2006, 10.215, 3. [Google Scholar]
- Makorere, R. An exploration of factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania: Empirical evidence from Muheza district, Tanga region. Int. J. Food Agric. Econ. 2014, 2, 135–154. [Google Scholar]
- Kilimo Trust. Analysis of the Banana Value Chains in Tanzania and Uganda; Kilimo Trust: Kampala, Uganda, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Mwakalinga, H.A. A Report on Avocado Value Chain Mapping in Siha and Njombe Districts. 2014. Available online: https://info.undp.org/docs/pdc/Documents/TZA/Report%20-%20Avocado%20final%20report.pdf (accessed on 12 November 2019).
- NBS. 2016/17 Annual Agriculture Sample Survey Crop and Livestock Report. Available online: https://www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/Agriculture/2016-17_AASS%20Report%20_Final.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- NBS. 2014/15 Annual Agricultural Sample Survey Report. Available online: https://www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/Agriculture/Annual_Agricultural_Sample_Survey_Report2014_15.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- TMEA. The Magical Avocados of Tanzania. 2016. Available online: https://www.trademarkea.com/news/press-release-the-magical-avocados-of-tanzania/ (accessed on 21 December 2018).
- AgDevCO. Rungwe Avocados Limited. 2018. Available online: https://www.agdevco.com/our-investments/by-investment/RUNGWE-AVOCADOS-LIMITED (accessed on 22 December 2018).
- Apeda 2019. Product(s) Exported from Tanzania Rep. Available online: http://apeda.gov.in/agriexchange/countrysearchnew/products_exported.aspx?ctryid=01395&ctryn=TANZANIA%20REP&menuid=3 (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Match Maker Associates. Horticulture Study. Phase 1: Mapping of Production of Fruits and Vegetables in Tanzania; Match Maker Associates: Arusha, Tanzania, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- REPOA. Improving Tanzania’s Competitiveness of Avocado (‘Green Gold’) Value Chain and Exports: A Case for Targeted Regulatory, Policy and Institutional Reforms. Policy Brief. 2018. Available online: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents/AVOCADO_value_chain.pdf (accessed on 20 August 2019).
- Citypopulation. Tanzania: Regions and Cities. Available online: https://www.citypopulation.de/en/tanzania/cities/ (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Weatherbase. Mbeya, Tanzania. Available online: https://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather-summary.php3?s=23936&cityname=Mbeya,+Tanzania (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Climate-data.org. Climate Njombe. Available online: https://en.climate-data.org/africa/tanzania/njombe/njombe-26459/ (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Climate-data.org. Climate Songwe. Available online: https://en.climate-data.org/africa/tanzania/mbeya/songwe-925140/ (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Minitab Inc. Minitab Statistical Software [Computer Software], 18.1 ed.; Minitab Inc.: State College, PA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Musimu, J.J. Economics of Small Holder Common Beans Production in Mbeya, Tanzania. Master’s Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Fischer, G.; Gramzow, A.; Laizer, A. Gender, vegetable value chains, income distribution and access to resources: Insights from surveys in Tanzania. Eur. J. Hortic. Sci. 2017, 82, 319–327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Oduol, J.B.A.; Mithöfer, D. Constraints to and Opportunities for Women’s Participation in High Value Agricultural Commodity Value Chains in Kenya; Working Papers 2014/11; Maastricht School of Management: Maastricht, The Netherlands. Available online: https://ideas.repec.org/p/msm/wpaper/2014-11.html (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Dube, S.C.; Paremoer, T.; Jahari, C.; Kilama, B. Growth and Development of Fruit Value Chain in Tanzania and South Africa. A Working Paper; University of Johannesburg: Johannesburg, South Africa,, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Mwambi, M.M.; Odul, J.; Mshenga, P.; Saidi, M. Does contract farming improve smallholder income? The case of avocado farmers in Kenya. J. Agribus. Dev. Emerg. Econ. 2016, 6, 2–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thomas, G. Rootstock influence on yield of ‘Hass’ avocado. In Proceedings of the Australian Avocado Growers’ Federation and the New Zealand Avocado Growers’ Association Conference ’97, ‘Searching for Quality’, Rotorua, New Zealand, 23–26 September 1997; pp. 138–146. [Google Scholar]
- Lovatt, C.; Zheng, Y.; Khuong, T.; Campisi-Pinto, S.; Crowley, D.; Rolshausen, P. Yield characteristics of ‘Hass’ avocado trees under California growing conditions. Actas VIII Congr. Mund. Palta 2015, 1, 336–341. [Google Scholar]
- Shumeta, Z. Avocado Production and Marketing in Southwestern Ethiopia. Trends Agric. Econ. 2010, 3, 190–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Omolo, P.; Tana, P.; Mutebi, C.; Okwach, E.; Onyango, H.; Okach, K.O. Analysis of avocado marketing in Trans-Nzoia district, Kenya. J. Dev. Agric. Econ. 2011, 3, 312–317. [Google Scholar]
- DANE, Precio Promedio por Tonelada de la Primera Transacción, Según Cultivo; Encuesta Nacional Agropecuaria; The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE): Bogotá, Colombia, 2014.
- Evans, E.A.; Crane, J.; Hodges, A.; Jason, L.; Osborne, J.L. Potential Economic Impact of Laurel Wilt Disease on the Florida Avocado Industry. ASHS 2010, 20, 234–238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bantayehu, M.; Alemayehu, M.; Abera, M.; Bizuaye, S. Postharvest Losses Assessment of Tropical Fruits in the Market Chain of North Western Ethiopia. FSQM 2017, 66, 13–24. [Google Scholar]
- World Economic Forum. Kenyan Avocados: Connecting to High-Value Export Markets. Available online: http://reports.weforum.org/enabling-trade-from-valuation-to-action/enabling-trade-from-farm-to-fork/a6-case-studies-f2f/kenyan-avocados-connecting-to-high-value-export-markets/?doing_wp_cron=1571388416.1538479328155517578125 (accessed on 18 October 2019).
- Daniel, E. Assessment of Agricultural Extension Services in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kyela, Songea Rural and Morogoro Rural Districts. Internship Report in Plant Sciences; Wageningen University and Research Centre: Gelderland, The Netherlands, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- George, O.; Duncan, O.G.; David, M.; Johnson, K. Livelihood assessment of avocado growing in western Kenya and its socioeconomic implications using agricultural extension services. Int. J. Agric. Ext. 2018, 6, 71–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sotto, R.C. Avocado Production in the Philippines. In Avocado Production in Asia and the Pacific; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Bangkok, Thailand, 2000; pp. 39–48. Available online: http://ebooks.lib.ntu.edu.tw/1_file/FAO/59570/x6902e00.pdf#page=10 (accessed on 20 October 2019).
- Gordon, D. “Commentary: California’s 30-years Drought”. Rural Cooperatives May/June:2. Available online: https://www.rd.usda.gov/files/CoopMag-may09.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Dinar, A.; Ashraf, A.; Reints, J. Farmer Adoption of Water Management Practices in Response to Recurrent Drought. Available online: http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/theme-articles/inducing-water-conservation-in-agriculture-institutional-and-behavioral-drivers/farmer-adoption-of-water-management-practices-in-response-to-recurrent-drought (accessed on 17 October 2019).
- Hartill, W.F.T. Post-harvest diseases of avocado fruits in New Zealand. N. Z. J. Crop Hortic. 1991, 19, 297–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Muirhead, I.F.; Pitzell, R.D.; Davis, R.D.; Peterson, R.A. Post-harvest control of anthracnose and stem-end rots of Fuerte avocados with prochloraz and other fungicides. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 1982, 22, 441–446. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aloo, J. Information on Avocado and Passion Fruit in Rift Valley Province; Personal Communication; Ministry of Agriculture: Nirobi, Kenya, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Ploetz, R.; Schnell, R.J.; Haynes, J. Variable response of open-pollinated seedling progeny of avocado to Phytophthora Root Rot. Phytoparasitica 2002, 30, 262–268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- DPG. DPG PSD/Trade field trip to Mbeya. A summary Report. DPG PSD/Trade Secretariat. 2013. Available online: http://www.tzdpg.or.tz/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/Report_on_Mbeya_Field_Trip_v2_19_April_01.pdf (accessed on 10 August 2019).
- Apeda 2019. Country Wise Product Report. Product: Avocados, Fresh/Dried (080440) Exporting Country: Tanzania Rep. Available online: http://agriexchange.apeda.gov.in/countrySearchnew/prdwise_impctrydetails.aspx?pcode=080440&year=2018&ctryn=TANZANIA%20REP&ctryid=01395&menuid=0 (accessed on 1 November 2019).
- Mayala, N.M.; Bamanyisa, J.M. Assessment of market options for smallholder horticultural growers and traders in Tanzania. Eur. J. Res. Soc. Sci. 2018, 6, 27–42. [Google Scholar]
- Serrano, A.; Brooks, A. Who is left behind in global food systems? Local Farmers Failed by Colombia’s Avocado Boom. ENE Nat. Space 2019, 2, 348–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Humble, S.; Reneby, A. Post-Harvest Losses in Fruit Supply Chains—A Case Study of Mango and Avocado in Ethiopia. Master’s Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, 2014. Available online: https://stud.epsilon.slu.se/7521/1/Humble_et_al_141205.pdf (accessed on 21 October 2019).
- Hoffman, A. Wildfires, Bad Weather Ruin California’s Avocado Crop. USA TODAY. Available online: https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2008-01-15-avocado-damage_N.htm (accessed on 19 October 2019).
- Fresh Studio Innovation Asia Ltd. Analysis of the Dak Lak Avocado Chain. Available online: http://www.value-chains.org/dyn/bds/docs/699/Avocado-chain-analysis.pdf (accessed on 15 October 2019).
- Whiley, A.W. Avocado Production in Australia. In Avocado production in Asia and the Pacific; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Bangkok, Thailand, 2000; pp. 5–14. Available online: http://ebooks.lib.ntu.edu.tw/1_file/FAO/59570/x6902e00.pdf#page=10 (accessed on 19 October 2019).
- Keeley, M. Restaurants are Turning to Faux-Guacamole due to High Avocado Prices. Newsweek. 2019. Available online: https://www.newsweek.com/restaurants-are-turning-faux-guacamole-due-high-avocado-prices-1451397 (accessed on 19 October 2019).
- Grey, C. Avocado Prices Surge owing to High Demand and Low Supply. Industry Leader Magazine. 2019. Available online: https://www.industryleadersmagazine.com/avocado-prices-surge-owing-to-high-demand-and-low-supply/ (accessed on 19 October 2019).
|Region||District||No. of Farmers||No. of the Traders||No of Key Informants|
|A. Avocado Fruit Yield in Different Regions and Districts|
|Region||Yield in kg Tree−1|
|District||Yield in kg Tree−1|
|B. Yield grouped according to the number of years the farmers have been engaged with avocado growing|
|Time (in years)||Yield in kg Tree−1 (mean ± st. dev.)|
|The Local Traders Purchasing Ability of Avocado Fruits at Once in kg*||Percent Loss of Purchased Avocado Experienced by the Local Traders|
|Mbeya||197a||Mbeya city||185ab||Mbeya||21a||Mbeya city||25ab|
|Mbeya rural||14d||Mbeya rural||11bc|
|Njombe||53b||Njombe urban||143b||Njombe||11b||Njombe urban||11c|
|Njombe rural||22cd||Njombe rural||9c|
|Challenges Faced by the Farmers*||Number of Farmers that Reported the Challenge||% Age of Farmers that Reported the Challenge||Challenge Faced by the Traders||Number of Traders that Reported the Challenge||% Age of Traders that Reported the Challenge|
|Limited extension support services||202||73||Short fruit shelf life||132||57|
|Drought||120||44||Poor marketing conditions||123||53|
|Pests and diseases||104||38||Low quality and limited supply||38||16|
|Poor marketing conditions||86||31||Poor road networks and means of transportation||40||17|
|Restricted access to agricultural inputs||51||19||Low capital||32||14|
|Vandalism, theft and yield decline||34||12||Taxation||31||13|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Juma, I.; Fors, H.; Hovmalm, H.P.; Nyomora, A.; Fatih, M.; Geleta, M.; Carlsson, A.S.; Ortiz, R.O. Avocado Production and Local Trade in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania: A Case of an Emerging Trade Commodity from Horticulture. Agronomy 2019, 9, 749. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110749
Juma I, Fors H, Hovmalm HP, Nyomora A, Fatih M, Geleta M, Carlsson AS, Ortiz RO. Avocado Production and Local Trade in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania: A Case of an Emerging Trade Commodity from Horticulture. Agronomy. 2019; 9(11):749. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110749Chicago/Turabian Style
Juma, Ibrahim, Hanna Fors, Helena Persson Hovmalm, Agnes Nyomora, Moneim Fatih, Mulatu Geleta, Anders S. Carlsson, and Rodomiro Octavio Ortiz. 2019. "Avocado Production and Local Trade in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania: A Case of an Emerging Trade Commodity from Horticulture" Agronomy 9, no. 11: 749. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110749