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Agronomy 2019, 9(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9010029

Sensitivity of Three Phosphate Extraction Methods to the Application of Phosphate Species Differing in Immediate Plant Availability

Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
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Received: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
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Abstract

Extractive tests for determining the plant-availability of soil phosphorus (P) give varying results due to the inherently different characteristics of the extraction solution. Generally, classical soil P tests such as the Olsen or calcium acetate/lactate (CAL) method do not give an indication on the total amount of plant available P, but merely give an indication of the equilibrium between soil and extraction solution. It is also not entirely clear which fractions of P are directly determined through the various methods of extraction, i.e., determined P must not be immediately plant available, as is the case for rock phosphate. It is therefore possible that extraction methods either over or under estimate the amount of P available for plant consumption. In this research, we compared three methods of soil P determination (CAL, Olsen and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)) with regards to their ability to determine P species (Ca(H2PO4)2, CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2 and Inositol-6-hexakisphosphate) added to soils of high sorption capacity, immediately after as well as two weeks after application. For each of the methods, it could be shown that sorption processes in the soil immediately (0 days incubation) fix P to a point where it is not extractable through any of the described methods. These sorption processes continue over time, leading to a further decrease of determined P. The acidic CAL extraction method gives higher results of extractable P compared to the Olsen method. Due to the extraction of Ca3(PO4)2, the CAL method may overestimate immediately plant-available P. The most suitable methods for the determination of immediately plant available P may therefore be the Olsen and DGT methods. Organic IP6 is not determined by any of the extraction methods. At low concentrations of soil P, the DGT method may fail to give results. View Full-Text
Keywords: diffusive gradients in thin films; phosphate availability; soil chemistry; plant nutrition; phosphate aging; phytate diffusive gradients in thin films; phosphate availability; soil chemistry; plant nutrition; phosphate aging; phytate
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Hartmann, T.E.; Wollmann, I.; You, Y.; Müller, T. Sensitivity of Three Phosphate Extraction Methods to the Application of Phosphate Species Differing in Immediate Plant Availability. Agronomy 2019, 9, 29.

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