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Agronomy 2018, 8(8), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8080156

Origin and Distribution of the VRN-A1 Exon 4 and Exon 7 Haplotypes in Domesticated Wheat Species

The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Lavrentyeva Avenue 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
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Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract

The high adaptive potential of modern wheat to a wide range of environmental conditions is determined by genetic changes during domestication. Genetic diversity in VRN1 genes is a key contributor to this adaptability. Previously, the association between the transitions C->T within the fourth and seventh exons of VRN-A1, the distinguishing pair haplotypes Ex4C/Ex4T and Ex7C/Ex7T, and the modulation of such agronomically valuable traits as the vernalization requirement duration, frost tolerance and flowering time of wheat have been shown. However, this polymorphism was analyzed in only a few cultivars of Triticum aestivum L., and not in other wheat species. In the present study, VRN-A1 exon 4 and exon 7 were investigated in six tetraploid and five hexaploid wheat species carrying different VRN-A1 alleles. An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was optimized to identify the VRN-A1 exon 7 haplotypes. It was found that polymorphism of the VRN-A1 exon 7 originated in wild tetraploid wheat of Triticum dicoccoides Körn, while the mutant exon 4 of this gene originated later in domesticated hexaploid wheat of T. aestivum. Both these polymorphisms are found in all hexaploid wheat species. Analysis of the VRN-A1 exon 4 and exon 7 haplotype combinations found that intact exon 7 and mutant exon 4 are associated with analogous types of exon 4 and 7, respectively. With the exclusion of the Vrn-A1c (IL369) and Vrn-A1j alleles, identified only in hexaploid wheat, all dominant VRN-A1 alleles carry intact exons 4 and 7 (Ex4C/7C haplotype). The Ex4C/4T/7T haplotype was detected in numerous accessions of hexaploid wheat and is associated with the presence of multiple copies of VRN-A1. Overall, modern domesticated hexaploid wheat T. aestivum includes most possible combinations of the VRN-A1 exon 4 and exon 7 haplotypes among polyploid wheat, which are present in different proportions. This contributes to the high adaptive potential to a broad range of environmental conditions and facilitates the widespread distribution of this species throughout the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat; adaptability; genetic diversity; VRN-A1 exon 4; exon 7; polymorphism; haplotypes wheat; adaptability; genetic diversity; VRN-A1 exon 4; exon 7; polymorphism; haplotypes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Muterko, A.; Salina, E. Origin and Distribution of the VRN-A1 Exon 4 and Exon 7 Haplotypes in Domesticated Wheat Species. Agronomy 2018, 8, 156.

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