Next Article in Journal
Microbial Endophytes that Live within the Seeds of Two Tomato Hybrids Cultivated in Argentina
Previous Article in Journal
Pattern Recognition Receptors—Versatile Genetic Tools for Engineering Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Crops
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agronomy 2018, 8(8), 135;

Effects of Steel Slag and Biochar Incorporation on Active Soil Organic Carbon Pools in a Subtropical Paddy Field

Institute of Geography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Process, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
College of Life Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2385 KB, uploaded 7 August 2018]   |  


Industrial wastes and agricultural byproducts are increasingly used in crop production as fertilizers, but their impacts on soil carbon (C) sequestration remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of applying steel slag (SS), biochar (B), and a combination of these two materials (SS + B) on total soil organic C (SOC), active SOC fractions, and C pool management index (CPMI) in a subtropical paddy field in China. The treatments were applied at a rate of 8 t ha−1 to rice at the two (early and late) crop seasons in 2015. The SOC concentrations in the top 30 cm soils in the SS + B treatments were 28.7% and 42.2% higher in the early and late crops, respectively, as compared to the controls (p < 0.05). SOC was positively correlated with soil C:N ratio across the two crop seasons (r = 0.92–0.97, p < 0.01). As compared to the control, SS + B treatment had significantly higher carbon pool index (CPI) in both early (22.4%) and late (40.1%) crops. In the early crop, the C pool activity index (CPAI) was significantly lower in B and SS + B treatments by over 50% than in the control, while the soil C pool management index (CPMI) in the SS, B, and SS + B treatments was lower than that in the control by 36.7%, 41.6%, and 45.4%, respectively. In contrast, in the late crop, no significant differences in CPAI and CPMI were observed among the treatments. Our findings suggest that the addition of steel slag and biochar in subtropical paddy fields could decrease active SOC pools and enhance soil C sequestration only in the early crop, but not the late crop. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice paddy; active carbon; biochar; steel slag; soil organic carbon rice paddy; active carbon; biochar; steel slag; soil organic carbon

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, W.; Lai, D.Y.F.; Abid, A.A.; Neogi, S.; Xu, X.; Wang, C. Effects of Steel Slag and Biochar Incorporation on Active Soil Organic Carbon Pools in a Subtropical Paddy Field. Agronomy 2018, 8, 135.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top