Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size
Previous Article in Journal
Retrotransposon-Based Genetic Diversity Assessment in Wild Emmer Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides)
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agronomy 2018, 8(7), 108;

Is Endophyte-Plant Co-Denitrification a Source of Nitrous Oxides Emission? —An Experimental Investigation with Soybean

Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
College of life science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19 (A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2119 KB, uploaded 3 July 2018]   |  


The biological pattern of plants’ nitrous oxide (N2O) generation is not well understood because plant cells cannot form N2O from nitric oxide (NO) reduction. Hypothetically, we consider that plant-endophytic co-denitrification is potentially capable of making up for the functional loss of NO reduction in the plant cell and is thus the source of plant-derived N2O. In order to test the above hypothesis, field-cultured soybean seedlings and aseptic-cultured seedlings were used to establish plant holobionts with differentially established endophytes. The N2O fluxes, copies of the bacterial NO reductase encoding gene, and a diversity of endophytic denitrifying bacteria of these holobionts were observed by gas chromatography, real-time PCR, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The flux of N2O by the field seedlings was significantly higher than the fluxes of the aseptic seedlings and bulk soil. The N2O flux of the soybean seedlings was significantly correlated to the abundance of the bacterial NO reductase encoding gene. Eleven genera of denitrifying bacteria were observed in the soybean seedlings, and among them, two genera of aerobic denitrifying bacteria were specifically associated with colonizing plant samples. In this work we have also showed that plant N2O emission is affected by the abundance of total endophytic denitrifying bacteria. We conclude that plant sourced N2O is cooperatively generated by the plant-endophyte symbiotic system in which endophytic denitrifying bacteria help plants to emit N2O by taking over the NO–N2O reduction process. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant derived N2O; endophytic bacteria; plant-endophytic co-denitrification plant derived N2O; endophytic bacteria; plant-endophytic co-denitrification

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, H.; Li, Y.; Xu, H. Is Endophyte-Plant Co-Denitrification a Source of Nitrous Oxides Emission? —An Experimental Investigation with Soybean. Agronomy 2018, 8, 108.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top