Next Article in Journal
An Evaluation of the Variation in the Morphometric Parameters of Grain of Six Triticum Species with the Use of Digital Image Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Asparagine Concentration as an Indicator of the Acrylamide Formation in Cereals Grown under Organic Farming Conditions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ergonomic Evaluation of Current Advancements in Blueberry Harvesting
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agronomy 2018, 8(12), 295;

Bird Management in Blueberries and Grapes

Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, 288 Farm Ln., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Center for Global Change and Earth Observations, Michigan State University, 1405 S. Harrison Rd., East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Crop Production and Protection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [963 KB, uploaded 7 December 2018]   |  


Bird damage to fruit is a long-standing challenge for growers that imposes significant costs because of yield losses and grower efforts to manage birds. We measured bird damage in ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry fields and Pinot noir vineyards in 2012–2014 in Michigan to investigate how year, grower, and forest cover influenced the proportions of bird damage. We tested whether inflatable tubemen (2013–2014) and a methyl anthranilate spray (2015) reduced bird damage in blueberries, and tested the deterrent effect of inflatable tubemen in grapes (2014). Years when crop yield was lower tended to have a higher damage percentage; for blueberries, bird damage was highest in 2012, and in grapes, damage was highest in 2012 and 2014. Neither blueberry fields nor vineyards with inflatable tubemen showed significantly reduced bird damage, although the blueberry fields showed a non-significant trend toward lower damage in the tubemen blocks. Blueberry field halves treated with the methyl anthranilate spray had equivalent bird damage to untreated halves. Our results correspond to previous work showing that percent bird damage varies by year, which was likely because bird consumption of fruit is relatively constant over time, while fruit yield varies. Fruit growers should expect a higher proportion of bird damage in low-fruit contexts, such as low-yield years, and prepare to invest more in bird management at those times. Investigating patterns of bird damage and testing deterrent strategies remain challenges. Bird activity is spatially and temporally variable, and birds’ mobility necessitates tests at large scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit; Michigan; inflatable tubemen; methyl anthranilate; bird deterrent fruit; Michigan; inflatable tubemen; methyl anthranilate; bird deterrent

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lindell, C.A.; Hannay, M.B.; Hawes, B.C. Bird Management in Blueberries and Grapes. Agronomy 2018, 8, 295.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top