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Open AccessArticle

Apparent Accumulated Nitrogen Fertilizer Recovery in Long-Term Wheat–Maize Cropping Systems in China

by Jie Liu 1,2, Jumei Li 2, Yibing Ma 2,3,*, Yuehui Jia 1 and Qiong Liang 1
College of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China
Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2018, 8(12), 293;
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Recovery efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers has always been an important issue, especially for N fertilizer recommendation rate in cropping systems. Based on the equilibrium of N in the soil–plant system, apparent accumulated N fertilizer recovery (NREac) was determined for long-term (15-years) experiments in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) rotations at five field sites with various soils and climate characteristics in China. The result showed that the frequency of cropping and the content of soil clay affected NREac positively and negatively, respectively. In the absence of nutrient deficiencies and other soil constraints (from NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in S2-CP (site2-Changping) in Beijing, S3-ZZ (site3-Zhengzhou) in Henan province and S4-YL (site4-Yangling) in Shaanxi province), NREac had a narrow range from 70% to 78% with the highest average of 75% in wheat and maize cropping system. Meanwhile, the value 75% of NERac is a rational value proved by 3414 experiments. Additionally, the nitrate-N approach suggested that nitrate-N could be utilized by subsequent crops, the amount of which is calculated by the equation −1.23 × [(NO3-N) − 87]. Furthermore, another simpler and feasible method was proposed to maintain basic soil fertility while achieving a rational grain yield and maintaining a safe environmental upper threshold of nitrate. The present study provided a suit of methods for N fertilizer recommendations for the optimization of N applications in wheat and maize cropping system in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: apparent N recovery efficiency; fertilizer recommendation; wheat; maize apparent N recovery efficiency; fertilizer recommendation; wheat; maize
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Liu, J.; Li, J.; Ma, Y.; Jia, Y.; Liang, Q. Apparent Accumulated Nitrogen Fertilizer Recovery in Long-Term Wheat–Maize Cropping Systems in China. Agronomy 2018, 8, 293.

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