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Agronomy 2018, 8(11), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8110245

An Assessment of Low-Cost Techniques to Measure Ammonia Emission from Multi-Plots: A Case Study with Urea Fertilization

1
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark
2
INRA, UMR EcoSys, Université Paris Saclay, route de la Ferme, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
3
Department of Engineering-Air Quality Engineering, Finlandsgade 12, building 98352, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
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Abstract

Ammonia (NH3) emission from agriculture is an environmental threat and a loss of nitrogen for crop production. Mineral fertilizers and manure are significant sources of NH3; therefore, abatement technologies have been introduced to mitigate these emissions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that low-cost measuring techniques are suitable to assess NH3 emissions in smaller plots, appropriate to test different managements. Two experiments were established to quantify NH3 emissions from urea application in a multi-plot design with radii of 5 (R5) and 20 m (R20). Field was bare soil partially surrounded by shelterbelts. Measurement techniques included passive flux samplers (Leuning), and passive concentration samplers (ALPHA) coupled to WindTrax dispersion model. NH3 emission from R5 was consistent with the emission from R20 when the surface-to-atmosphere exchange was not affected by shelterbelts, and wind speed near surface was greater than 1 m s−1. Both measurement methods gave unreliable NH3 quantification in combination with wind speed lower than 1 m s−1 and low emission strength. Cumulative emission over 60 h was 2% of the supplied N from the plots not affected by the shelterbelt, and 1% from the plots affected by shelterbelts, indicating that these structures can significantly reduce NH3 emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: small plots; wind effect; shelterbelts; ZINST; inverse dispersion modelling; ammonia emission small plots; wind effect; shelterbelts; ZINST; inverse dispersion modelling; ammonia emission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lavrsen Kure, J.; Krabben, J.; Vilms Pedersen, S.; Carozzi, M.; Sommer, S.G. An Assessment of Low-Cost Techniques to Measure Ammonia Emission from Multi-Plots: A Case Study with Urea Fertilization. Agronomy 2018, 8, 245.

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