- freely available
Agronomy 2017, 7(3), 59; doi:10.3390/agronomy7030059
2. Major Challenges
2.1. Extreme Climatic Conditions
2.2. Lack of Appropriate Crops and/or Varieties and Crop Diversification
2.3. Youth Out-Migration and Aging Population/Labour Shortage
2.4. Insufficient Infrastructure and Support Services
2.5. Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal/First Nations Growers and Consumers
2.6. Inadequate Policy Support
3. Potential Opportunities
3.1. Fertile Soils for Crop Production
3.2. Changing Climate Favours Diversification/Integrated Farming
3.3. Transportation Services
3.4. Inexpensive/Affordable Land for Agriculture
4. Needs and Priorities
4.1. Produce and Consume Local Foods
4.2. Meeting the Needs of Aboriginals/First Nations Growers and Consumers
4.3. Testing/Adoption of Appropriate Crops and Cropping Systems Suitable for the Region
4.4. Collaboration and Capacity Development
4.5. Effective Use of Different Extension Avenues
4.6. Infrastructure and Market Development
4.7. Policy Support
Conflicts of Interest
|Ecozone *||Ecoregion **||Number of Ecodistricts||Primary Bedrock 1||Mean Annual Temperature 2 (°C)||Mean Annual Precipitation 2 (mm)||Average Growing Season (Length–Days) 2|
|Hudson Bay Lowlands||0E–Hudson Bay Coast||1||Phanerozoic Calcareous||−5.1 to −2.2||490–614||65|
|1E–Northern Taiga||2||−5.1 to −2.2||490–614||138–157|
|2E–James Bay||3||−2.6 to 0.5||528–833||154–173|
|Ontario Shield||2W–Big Trout Lake||3||Archean Acidic/ Metamorphic||−4.1 to −0.1||550–786||147–170|
|3E–Lake Abitibi||7||−0.5 to 2.5||652–1029||167–185|
|3S–Lake St. Joseph||5||−1.7 to 1.0||613–787||162–179|
|3W–Lake Nipigon||5||−1.7 to 2.1||654–879||161–182|
|4E–Lake Temagami||5||0.8 to 4.3||725–1148||171–200|
|4S–Lake Wabigoon||6||0.1 to 2.6||565–724||174–188|
|4W–Pigeon River||2||0.2 to 2.7||674–838||168–188|
|5E–Georgian Bay||13||Proterozoic Acidic/ Metamorphic||2.8 to 6.2||771–1134||183–219|
|5S–Agassiz Clay Plain||2||1.4 to 2.8||559–660||182–190|
|Mixedwood Plains||6E–Lake Simcoe-Rideau||17||Phanerozoic Calcareous||4.9 to 7.8||759–1087||205–230|
|7E–Lake Erie-Lake Ontario||6||6.3 to 9.4||776–1018||217–243|
|Class 1||The soils are deep, are well to imperfectly drained, hold moisture well, and well supplied with plant nutrients. They can be managed and cropped without difficulty. Under good management, they are moderately-high to high in productivity for a wide range of field crops.||Soils in this class have no significant limitations in use for crops.|
|Class 2||The soils are deep and hold moisture well. The limitations are moderate and the soils can be managed and cropped with little difficulty. Under good management, they are moderately-high to high in productivity for a fairly wide range of field crops.||Soils in this class have moderate limitations that restrict the range of crops or require moderate conservation practices.|
|Class 3||The limitations are more severe than for class 2 soils. They affect one or more of the following practices: timing and ease of tillage, planting and harvesting, choice of crops and methods of conservation. Under good management, they are fair to moderately high in productivity for a fair range of field crops.||Soils in this class have moderately severe limitations that restrict the range of crops or require special conservation practices.|
|Class 4||The limitations seriously affect one or more of the following practices: timing and ease of tillage, planting and harvesting, choice of crops and methods of conservation. The soils are low to fair in productivity for a fair range of crops but may have high productivity for a specially adapted crop.||Soils in this class have severe limitations that restrict the range of crops or require special conservation practices or both.|
|Class 5||The limitations are so severe that the soils are not capable of sustained production of annual field crops. The soils are capable of producing native or tame species of perennial forage plants, and may be improved by use of farm machinery. The improvement practices may include clearing bush, cultivation, seeding, fertilizing, or water control.||Soils in this class have very severe limitations that restrict their capability to producing perennial forage crops, and improvement practices are feasible.|
|Class 6||These soils provide some sustained grazing for farm animals, but the limitations are so severe that improvement by use of farm machinery is impractical. The terrain may be unsuitable for use of farm machinery, or the soils may not respond to improvement or the grazing season may be very short.||Soils in this class are capable only of producing perennial forage crops, and improvement practices are not feasible.|
|Class 7||This class also includes rock land, non-soil areas and bodies of water too small to show on maps.||Soils in this class have no capability for arable culture or permanent pasture.|
|Class 0||This class includes marshes, peats, bogs and swamps.||-|
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|District/Regions||Total Farmland (ha)||Percent Change from 2011||Number of Farms||Cropland (ha)||Pasturelands (ha)||Major Crops||Livestock||Poultry||FCR * (Million $)|
|Seeded||Natural||Field Crops/Pasture||Fruit Crops||Vegetable Crops|
|Algoma||30,083||−8.3||280||11,912||3252||2780||Oats and barley for grains, hay, mixed grains, potatoes, corn for silage||Strawberries, raspberries||Sweetcorn, green beans, tomatoes, green peas||Beef cows, sheep and lambs, steers, dairy cows||Poultry and eggs||15.4|
|Greater Sudbury Division||6455||−20.3||124||3135||185||562||Potatoes, oats for grains, hay||Beef cows, steers||8.2|
|Kenora||10,610||−8.7||72||3601||1051||1535||Hay, oats for grains, mixed grains, potatoes||-||Green beans, tomatoes||Beef cows, sheep and lambs, steers||2.1|
|Manitoulin||57,212||−10.6||201||10,994||3282||32,687||Barley and oats for grains, hay, mixed grains, corn for silage||Apples||Sweetcorn, tomatoes, green beans||Beef cows, steers, sheep and lambs||15.6|
|Nipissing||27,786||−13.3||210||13,580||1470||3804||Oats and barley for grains, hay, mixed grains, potatoes, soybeans, winter wheat||-||Sweetcorn, green beans, tomatoes||Sheep and lambs, beef cows, dairy cows, steers||Poultry and eggs, turkey||11.9|
|Rainy River||61,995||−19.7||235||21,583||7919||18,423||Oats for grains, hay, mixed grains, corn for silage, soybeans||-||Sweetcorn, green beans, tomatoes, green peas||Beef cows, steers, dairy cows, sheep and lambs||Poultry and eggs||34.9|
|Sudbury||17,860||−4.1||138||7490||1062||2781||Oats and barley for grains, hay, corn for silage||-||Beef cows, dairy cows, sheep and lambs, steers, pigs||4.1|
|Thunder Bay||19,927||−16.7||202||10,225||1249||2190||Barley for grains, hay, oats, corn for silage, mixed grains, potatoes||Raspberries, apple||Sweetcorn, tomatoes, green beans||Turkey, poultry and eggs||27.9|
|Timiskaming||71,568||−4.7||356||47,257||4345||6297||Oats and barley for grains, hay, mixed grains, soybeans, potatoes, corn for silage, winter wheat||-||-||Dairy and beef cows, sheep and lambs||Turkey||61.6|
|Parry Sound||26,848||−13.9||252||8177||2395||3623||Hay, oats, mixed grains, potatoes, winter wheat||Apples, raspberries||Tomatoes, green beans||Steers, sheep and lambs||Poultry and eggs, turkeys||6.2|
|Muskoka||9545||−7.7||162||3150||842||870||Hay, Oats, mixed grains||-||Sweet corn, tomatoes, green beans||Beef cows||Poultry and eggs||3.2|
|Total||361,967||−12.4||2391||149,095||29,389||78,670||Oats and barley for grains, hay, potatoes, mixed grains, corn for silage||Raspberries, strawberries, apples||Sweetcorn, green beans, tomatoes||Dairy and beef cows, sheep and lambs, steers, pigs||Poultry and eggs, turkey||198.9|
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