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Agronomy 2016, 6(4), 59;

Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Private Bag 105, Hamilton 3300, Australia
Agriculture Victoria, Biosciences Research & School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, AgriBio, the Centre for AgriBioscience, 5 Ring Rd, Bundoora 3083, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John W. Forster and Peter Langridge
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
PDF [213 KB, uploaded 6 December 2016]


Many of the major forage species used in agriculture are outcrossing and rely on the exchange of pollen between individuals for reproduction; this includes the major species used for dairy production in grazing systems: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Cultivars of these species have been co-existing since contrasting cultivars were developed using plant breeding, but the consequences and need for strategies to manage co-existence have been made more prominent with the advent of genetic modification. Recent technological developments have seen the experimental evaluation of genetically modified (GM) white clover and perennial ryegrass, although there is no current commercial growing of GM cultivars of these species. Co-existence frameworks already exist for two major cross-pollinated grain crops (canola and maize) in Europe, and for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the US, so many of the principles that the industry has developed for co-existence in these crops such as detection techniques, segregation, and agronomic management provide lessons and guidelines for outcrossing forage species, that are discussed in this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: pasture; GMO; co-existence pasture; GMO; co-existence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Smith, K.F.; Spangenberg, G. Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures. Agronomy 2016, 6, 59.

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