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Article

Assessing the Impact of Rice Cultivation and Off-Season Period on Dynamics of Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities in Two Agro-Ecological Regions of Mozambique

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Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
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Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6000, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
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Agricultural Research Council-Soil, Climate and Water (ARC-SCW), Arcadia, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo 3453, Mozambique
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Africa Centre of Excellence in Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt 500102, Nigeria
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Rural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Lúrio University, Marrere 4250, Mozambique
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Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Instituto de Investigação Agraria de Moçambique, Maputo 3658, Mozambique
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International Rice Research Institute-Eastern and Southern Africa Hub, Maputo 2100, Mozambique
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Centro de Química, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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BioData.pt, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Lisbon, Portugal
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Forest Research Center (CEF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
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Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food Research Unit (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Elena Baldi
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040694
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Plant Interaction: Focus on Plant Growth and Soil Biodiversity)
Soil ecosystem perturbation due to agronomic practices can negatively impact soil productivity by altering the diversity and function of soil health determinants. Currently, the influence of rice cultivation and off-season periods on the dynamics of soil health determinants is unclear. Therefore, soil enzyme activities (EAs) and bacterial community compositions in rice-cultivated fields at postharvest (PH) and after a 5-month off-season period (5mR), and fallow-fields (5-years-fallow, 5YF; 10-years-fallow, 10YF and/or one-year-fallow, 1YF) were assessed in two agroecological regions of Mozambique. EAs were mostly higher in fallow fields than in PH, with significant (p < 0.05) differences detected for β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activities. Only β-glucosidase activity was significantly (p < 0.05) different between PH and 5mR, suggesting that β-glucosidase is responsive in the short-term. Bacterial diversity was highest in rice-cultivated soil and correlated with NO3, NH4+ and electrical conductivity. Differentially abundant genera, such as Agromyces, Bacillus, Desulfuromonas, Gaiella, Lysobacter, Micromonospora, Norcadiodes, Rubrobacter, Solirubrobacter and Sphingomonas were mostly associated with fallow and 5mR fields, suggesting either negative effects of rice cultivation or the fallow period aided their recovery. Overall, rice cultivation and chemical parameters influenced certain EAs and shaped bacterial communities. Furthermore, the 5-month off-season period facilitates nutrient recovery and proliferation of plant-growth-promoting bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; rhizosphere microbiome; enzyme activities; soil health indicators; soil management practices; bacterial co-occurrence network rice; rhizosphere microbiome; enzyme activities; soil health indicators; soil management practices; bacterial co-occurrence network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ezeokoli, O.T.; Nuaila, V.N.A.; Obieze, C.C.; Muetanene, B.A.; Fraga, I.; Tesinde, M.N.; Ndayiragije, A.; Coutinho, J.; Melo, A.M.P.; Adeleke, R.A.; Ribeiro-Barros, A.I.; Fangueiro, D. Assessing the Impact of Rice Cultivation and Off-Season Period on Dynamics of Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities in Two Agro-Ecological Regions of Mozambique. Agronomy 2021, 11, 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040694

AMA Style

Ezeokoli OT, Nuaila VNA, Obieze CC, Muetanene BA, Fraga I, Tesinde MN, Ndayiragije A, Coutinho J, Melo AMP, Adeleke RA, Ribeiro-Barros AI, Fangueiro D. Assessing the Impact of Rice Cultivation and Off-Season Period on Dynamics of Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities in Two Agro-Ecological Regions of Mozambique. Agronomy. 2021; 11(4):694. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ezeokoli, Obinna T., Valter N.A. Nuaila, Chinedu C. Obieze, Belo A. Muetanene, Irene Fraga, Maria N. Tesinde, Alexis Ndayiragije, João Coutinho, Ana M.P. Melo, Rasheed A. Adeleke, Ana I. Ribeiro-Barros, and David Fangueiro. 2021. "Assessing the Impact of Rice Cultivation and Off-Season Period on Dynamics of Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities in Two Agro-Ecological Regions of Mozambique" Agronomy 11, no. 4: 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040694

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