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Article

The Impact of Harvesting Time on Fusarium Mycotoxins in Spring Wheat Grain and Their Interaction with Grain Quality

1
Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, LT-58344 Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania
2
Chemical Research Laboratory, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, LT-58344 Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania
3
Department of Cereal Breeding, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, LT-58344 Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Malgorzata Jedryczka
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040642
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for the Control of Fusarium Head Blight in Cereals)
In this work, we studied the impact of harvesting time on Fusarium mycotoxin occurrence in spring wheat and the effect of mycotoxin contamination on the quality of these grains. The spring wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected in 2016–2018 when the crop had reached full maturity, 10 ± 2 days and 17 ± 3 days after full maturity. The grain samples were analyzed for Fusarium infection and co-contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T-2 toxin (T-2), as well as the quality of the wheat grains (mass per hectolitre, contents of protein, starch, ash and fat, particle size index (PSI), falling number, sedimentation, wet gluten content, and gluten index). The occurrence of Fusarium spp. fungi and the mycotoxins produced by them in the grains was mostly influenced by the harvesting time and meteorological conditions. The correlations between Fusarium species and the mycotoxins produced by them in the grains of spring wheat showed F. graminearum to be a dominant species, and as a result, higher concentrations of DON and ZEA were determined. The co-occurrence of all the three mycotoxins analyzed (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin) was identified in wheat. In rainy years, a delay in harvesting resulted in diminished grain quality of spring wheat, as indicated by grain mass per hectolitre and falling number. Negative correlations were found in highly contaminated grains between mycotoxins (DON, ZEA, and T-2) and falling number and grain mass per hectolitre values. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat grain; delayed harvesting; grain co-contamination with DON; ZEA; T-2 toxin; spring wheat grain quality wheat grain; delayed harvesting; grain co-contamination with DON; ZEA; T-2 toxin; spring wheat grain quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kochiieru, Y.; Mankevičienė, A.; Cesevičienė, J.; Semaškienė, R.; Ramanauskienė, J.; Gorash, A.; Janavičienė, S.; Venslovas, E. The Impact of Harvesting Time on Fusarium Mycotoxins in Spring Wheat Grain and Their Interaction with Grain Quality. Agronomy 2021, 11, 642. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040642

AMA Style

Kochiieru Y, Mankevičienė A, Cesevičienė J, Semaškienė R, Ramanauskienė J, Gorash A, Janavičienė S, Venslovas E. The Impact of Harvesting Time on Fusarium Mycotoxins in Spring Wheat Grain and Their Interaction with Grain Quality. Agronomy. 2021; 11(4):642. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kochiieru, Yuliia, Audronė Mankevičienė, Jurgita Cesevičienė, Roma Semaškienė, Jūratė Ramanauskienė, Andrii Gorash, Sigita Janavičienė, and Eimantas Venslovas. 2021. "The Impact of Harvesting Time on Fusarium Mycotoxins in Spring Wheat Grain and Their Interaction with Grain Quality" Agronomy 11, no. 4: 642. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040642

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