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Detection and Diagnosis of Xylella fastidiosa by Specific Monoclonal Antibodies
Perspective

Landscape Epidemiology of Xylella fastidiosa in the Balearic Islands

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Serveis de Millora Agrària I Pesquera, Govern Balear, 07009 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Tragsa, Empresa de Transformación Agraria, Delegación de Baleares, 07005 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Servicio de Agricultura, Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Agricultura I Pesca, 07006 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IAS-CSIC), 14004 Córdoba, Spain
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Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), CV-315 km 10.7, 46113 Moncada, Spain
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Biology Department, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Majorca, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Imre Holb
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030473
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 28 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Population Biology and Management of Vascular Diseases)
Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a vascular plant pathogen native to the Americas. In 2013, it was first reported in Europe, implicated in a massive die-off of olive trees in Apulia, Italy. This finding prompted mandatory surveys across Europe, successively revealing that the bacterium was already established in some distant areas of the western Mediterranean. To date, the Balearic Islands (Spain) hold the major known genetic diversity of Xf in Europe. Since October 2016, four sequence types (ST) belonging to the subspecies fastidiosa (ST1), multiplex (ST7, ST81), and pauca (ST80) have been identified infecting 28 host species, including grapevines, almond, olive, and fig trees. ST1 causes Pierce’s disease (PD) and together with ST81 are responsible for almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) in California, from where they were introduced into Mallorca in around 1993, very likely via infected almond scions brought for grafting. To date, almond leaf scorch disease affects over 81% of almond trees and Pierce’s disease is widespread in vineyards across Mallorca, although producing on average little economic impact. In this perspective, we present and analyze a large Xf-hosts database accumulated over four years of field surveys, laboratory sample analyses, and research to understand the underlying causes of Xf emergence and spread among crops and wild plants in the Balearic Islands. The impact of Xf on the landscape is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: disease epidemiology; invasive plant pathogens; landscape disease; pathogen ecology; Pierce’s disease; quarantine plant pathogen; vector transmission; Xylella fastidiosa spread disease epidemiology; invasive plant pathogens; landscape disease; pathogen ecology; Pierce’s disease; quarantine plant pathogen; vector transmission; Xylella fastidiosa spread
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olmo, D.; Nieto, A.; Borràs, D.; Montesinos, M.; Adrover, F.; Pascual, A.; Gost, P.A.; Quetglas, B.; Urbano, A.; García, J.d.D.; Velasco-Amo, M.P.; Olivares-García, C.; Beidas, O.; Juan, A.; Marco-Noales, E.; Gomila, M.; Rita, J.; Moralejo, E.; Landa, B.B. Landscape Epidemiology of Xylella fastidiosa in the Balearic Islands. Agronomy 2021, 11, 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030473

AMA Style

Olmo D, Nieto A, Borràs D, Montesinos M, Adrover F, Pascual A, Gost PA, Quetglas B, Urbano A, García JdD, Velasco-Amo MP, Olivares-García C, Beidas O, Juan A, Marco-Noales E, Gomila M, Rita J, Moralejo E, Landa BB. Landscape Epidemiology of Xylella fastidiosa in the Balearic Islands. Agronomy. 2021; 11(3):473. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olmo, Diego, Alicia Nieto, David Borràs, Marina Montesinos, Francesc Adrover, Aura Pascual, Pere A. Gost, Bàrbara Quetglas, Alejandro Urbano, Juan d.D. García, María P. Velasco-Amo, Concepción Olivares-García, Omar Beidas, Andreu Juan, Ester Marco-Noales, Margarita Gomila, Juan Rita, Eduardo Moralejo, and Blanca B. Landa 2021. "Landscape Epidemiology of Xylella fastidiosa in the Balearic Islands" Agronomy 11, no. 3: 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030473

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