Next Article in Journal
Investigation on the Relationship between Morphological and Anatomical Characteristic of Savoy Cabbage and Kale Leaves and Infestation by Cabbage Whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.)
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Fungicide Application and Vine Age on Trichoderma Diversity as Source of Biological Control Agents
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison between Dense L-Band and C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Time Series for Crop Area Mapping over a NISAR Calibration-Validation Site
Previous Article in Special Issue
Side Effects of Pesticides on the Olive Fruit Fly Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti): A Review
Article

Influence of Physicochemical Characteristics of Bean Crop Soil in Trichoderma spp. Development

1
Grupo Universitario de Investigación en Ingeniería y Agricultura Sostenible (GUIIAS), Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Biodiversidad, Universidad de León, Avenida Portugal 41, 24071 León, Spain
2
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28007 Madrid, Spain
3
Grupo Universitario de Investigación en Ingeniería y Agricultura Sostenible (GUIIAS), Área de Microbiología, Escuela de Ingeniería Agraria y Forestal, Universidad de León, Campus de Ponferrada, Avenida Astorga s/n, 24400 Ponferrada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Rubiales
Agronomy 2021, 11(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020274
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 1 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Biological Control Agents in Crop Protection)
Spain has ranked 6th on the harvested bean area and 8th in bean production in the European Union (EU). The soils of this area have mixed silt loam and sandy loam texture, with moderate clay content, neutral or acidic pH, rich in organic matter and low carbonate levels, providing beans with high water absorption capacity and better organoleptic qualities after cooking. Similar to other crops, it is attacked by some phytopathogens. Hitherto, chemical methods have been used to control these organisms. However, with the Reform of the Community Agrarian Policy in the EU, the number of authorized plant protection products has been reduced to prevail food security, as well as to be sustainable in the long term, giving priority to the non-chemical methods that use biological agents, such as Trichoderma. This study aimed to investigate the relative importance of various crop soil parameters in the adaptation of Trichoderma spp. autoclaved soils (AS) and natural soils (NS) from the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) “Alubia La Bañeza—León” that were inoculated with Trichoderma velutinum T029 and T. harzianum T059 and incubated in a culture chamber at 25 °C for 15 days. Their development was determined by quantitative PCR. Twelve soil samples were selected and analyzed from the productive zones of Astorga, La Bañeza, La Cabrera, Esla-Campos and Páramo. Their physicochemical characteristics were different by zone, as the texture of soils ranged between sandy loam and silt loam and the pH between strongly acid and slightly alkaline, as well as the organic matter (OM) concentration between low and remarkably high. Total C and N concentrations and their ratio were between medium and high in most of the soils and the rest of the micronutrients had an acceptable concentration except for Paramo’s soil. Both Trichoderma species developed better in AS than in NS, T. velutinum T029 grew better with high levels of OM, total C, ratio C:N, P, K, Fe, and Zn than T. harzianum T059 in clay soils, with the highest values of cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH, Ca, Mg and Mn. These effects were validated by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), texture, particularly clay concentration, OM, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH (physical parameters) and B and Cu (soil elements) are the main factors explaining the influence in the Trichoderma development. OM, EC, C:N ratio and Cu are the main soil characteristics that influence in T. velutinum T029 development and pH in the development of T. harzianum T059. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil physicochemical characteristics; real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); Trichoderma velutinum; Trichoderma harzianum; bean; canonical correlation analysis soil physicochemical characteristics; real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); Trichoderma velutinum; Trichoderma harzianum; bean; canonical correlation analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mayo-Prieto, S.; Porteous-Álvarez, A.J.; Mezquita-García, S.; Rodríguez-González, Á.; Carro-Huerga, G.; del Ser-Herrero, S.; Gutiérrez, S.; Casquero, P.A. Influence of Physicochemical Characteristics of Bean Crop Soil in Trichoderma spp. Development. Agronomy 2021, 11, 274. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020274

AMA Style

Mayo-Prieto S, Porteous-Álvarez AJ, Mezquita-García S, Rodríguez-González Á, Carro-Huerga G, del Ser-Herrero S, Gutiérrez S, Casquero PA. Influence of Physicochemical Characteristics of Bean Crop Soil in Trichoderma spp. Development. Agronomy. 2021; 11(2):274. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020274

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mayo-Prieto, Sara, Alejandra J. Porteous-Álvarez, Sergio Mezquita-García, Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Guzmán Carro-Huerga, Sara del Ser-Herrero, Santiago Gutiérrez, and Pedro A. Casquero. 2021. "Influence of Physicochemical Characteristics of Bean Crop Soil in Trichoderma spp. Development" Agronomy 11, no. 2: 274. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11020274

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop