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Open AccessArticle

The Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Derivatives against Alternaria solani, the Causal Agent of Tomato Early Blight

1
Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt
2
Vegetable Disease Research Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619, Egypt
3
Department of Plant Pathology, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Rd., Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Agronomy 2020, 10(9), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091402
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 13 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pest and Disease Management)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Early blight disease, caused by Alternaria solani, is a destructive foliar disease of tomato and other Solanaceae species. Herein, we investigated the in vitro antifungal properties of gallic acid and two of its derivatives (syringic and pyrogallic acids) against A. solani during 2019 and 2020 seasons. The physiological and biochemical effects of these compounds on infected tomato plants were also investigated using the whole plant bioassay. The in vitro investigation showed that all tested compounds showed fungistatic action and inhibited the mycelial radial growth of A. solani in a dose-dependent manner. In two separate pot-experiments, those compounds efficiently suppressed the development of the disease symptoms and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), without any phytotoxic effects on the treated tomato plants. Additionally, all tested compounds positively enhanced the biochemical traits of treated plants including the chlorophyll content, the total soluble phenolics, the total soluble flavonoids, and the enzymatic activities of catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase during 2019 and 2020 seasons. Moreover, the treatment with gallic acid and its derivatives significantly increased all yield components of A. solani-infected tomato plants such as the total number of flowers and fruits, and the fruit yield for each tomato plant in both experiments. Considering the fungitoxicity of phenolic acids against A. solani with no phytotoxicity on treated tomato plants, we believe that gallic acid and its derivatives might be a sustainable eco-friendly control strategy to reduce the usage of chemical fungicides partially or entirely against A. solani particularly, and fungal diseases in general. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato; Alternaria solani; early blight disease; gallic acid; pyrogallic acid; syringic acid tomato; Alternaria solani; early blight disease; gallic acid; pyrogallic acid; syringic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Nagar, A.; Elzaawely, A.A.; Taha, N.A.; Nehela, Y. The Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Derivatives against Alternaria solani, the Causal Agent of Tomato Early Blight. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1402.

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