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Article

Antifungal and Phytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils: In Vitro Assays and Their Potential Use in Crop Protection

1
University of Littoral Côte d’Opale, Unit of Environmental Chemistry and Interactions with Living Organisms, UR 4492–UCEIV, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, F-62228 Calais CEDEX, France
2
Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants Group, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Hadath B.P. 1500, Lebanon
3
Faculty of Public Health, Sagesse University, Furn-El-Chebak, Beirut P.O. Box 50501, Lebanon
4
Georesources, Geosciences and Environment Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar Matn, Beirut P.O. Box 90656, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the present work.
Agronomy 2020, 10(6), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060825
Received: 2 May 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pest and Disease Management)
(1) Background: The use of natural products based on essential oils (EO) is nowadays arousing great interest as an alternative method to control plant pathogens and weeds. However, EO possess low bioavailability and are highly volatile, and their encapsulation in hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) could be a means to enhance their stability and maintain their bioactivity. Thus, the current study aims at investigating, in the presence and the absence of HP-β-CD, the antifungal and phytotoxic activities of nine EO, distilled from plant species belonging to Alliaceae, Apiaceae, and Cupressaceae families, with considerations for their chemical composition. (2) Methods: EO antifungal activity was assessed by direct contact and volatility assays against Fusarium culmorum, a major phytopathogenic fungi, while phytotoxic effects were evaluated against lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), by seedling’s emergence and growth assays. (3) Results: These EO inhibit fungal growth in both direct contact and volatility assays, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 0.01 to 4.2 g L−1, and from 0.08 up to 25.6 g L−1, respectively. Concerning phytotoxicity, these EO have shown great potential in inhibiting lettuce (IC50 ranging from 0.0008 up to 0.3 g L−1) and rye-grass (IC50 ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 g L−1) seedlings’ emergence and growth. However, the EO encapsulation in HP-β-CD has not shown a significant improvement in EO biological properties in our experimental conditions. (4) Conclusion: All tested EO present antifungal and phytotoxic activities, with diverse efficacy regarding their chemical composition, whilst no increase of their biological effects was observed with HP-β-CD. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; bioassays; Fusarium culmorum; Lactuca sativa L.; Lolium perenne L. essential oils; bioassays; Fusarium culmorum; Lactuca sativa L.; Lolium perenne L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Alam, I.; Raveau, R.; Fontaine, J.; Verdin, A.; Laruelle, F.; Fourmentin, S.; Chahine, R.; Makhlouf, H.; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, A. Antifungal and Phytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils: In Vitro Assays and Their Potential Use in Crop Protection. Agronomy 2020, 10, 825. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060825

AMA Style

El-Alam I, Raveau R, Fontaine J, Verdin A, Laruelle F, Fourmentin S, Chahine R, Makhlouf H, Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui A. Antifungal and Phytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils: In Vitro Assays and Their Potential Use in Crop Protection. Agronomy. 2020; 10(6):825. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060825

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Alam, Imad, Robin Raveau, Joël Fontaine, Anthony Verdin, Frédéric Laruelle, Sophie Fourmentin, Ramez Chahine, Hassane Makhlouf, and Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui. 2020. "Antifungal and Phytotoxic Activities of Essential Oils: In Vitro Assays and Their Potential Use in Crop Protection" Agronomy 10, no. 6: 825. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060825

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