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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Feruloyl Esterase—Xylanase Synergism for Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Xylo-Oligosaccharide Production from Untreated, Hydrothermally Pre-Treated and Dilute-Acid Pre-Treated Corn Cobs

1
Enzyme Science Programme (ESP), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape 6140, South Africa
2
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape 6140, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050688
Received: 4 April 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pretreatment and Bioconversion of Crop Residues)
Agricultural residues are considered the most promising option as a renewable feedstock for biofuel and high valued-added chemical production due to their availability and low cost. The efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of agricultural residues into value-added products such as sugars and hydroxycinnamic acids is a challenge because of the recalcitrant properties of the native biomass. Development of synergistic enzyme cocktails is required to overcome biomass residue recalcitrance, and achieve high yields of potential value-added products. In this study, the synergistic action of two termite metagenome-derived feruloyl esterases (FAE5 and FAE6), and an endo-xylanase (Xyn11) from Thermomyces lanuginosus, was optimized using 0.5% (w/v) insoluble wheat arabinoxylan (a model substrate) and then applied to 1% (w/v) corn cobs for the efficient production of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and hydroxycinnamic acids. The enzyme combination of 66% Xyn11 and 33% FAE5 or FAE6 (protein loading) produced the highest amounts of XOS, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid from untreated, hydrothermal, and acid pre-treated corn cobs. The combination of 66% Xyn11 and 33% FAE6 displayed an improvement in reducing sugars of approximately 1.9-fold and 3.4-fold for hydrothermal and acid pre-treated corn cobs (compared to Xyn11 alone), respectively. The hydrolysis product profiles revealed that xylobiose was the dominant XOS produced from untreated and pre-treated corn cobs. These results demonstrated that the efficient production of hydroxycinnamic acids and XOS from agricultural residues for industrial applications can be achieved through the synergistic action of FAE5 or FAE6 and Xyn11. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ferulic acid; Feruloyl esterase; Xylanase; Synergy; Xylo-oligosaccharides Ferulic acid; Feruloyl esterase; Xylanase; Synergy; Xylo-oligosaccharides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mkabayi, L.; Malgas, S.; Wilhelmi, B.S.; Pletschke, B.I. Evaluating Feruloyl Esterase—Xylanase Synergism for Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Xylo-Oligosaccharide Production from Untreated, Hydrothermally Pre-Treated and Dilute-Acid Pre-Treated Corn Cobs. Agronomy 2020, 10, 688. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050688

AMA Style

Mkabayi L, Malgas S, Wilhelmi BS, Pletschke BI. Evaluating Feruloyl Esterase—Xylanase Synergism for Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Xylo-Oligosaccharide Production from Untreated, Hydrothermally Pre-Treated and Dilute-Acid Pre-Treated Corn Cobs. Agronomy. 2020; 10(5):688. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mkabayi, Lithalethu; Malgas, Samkelo; Wilhelmi, Brendan S.; Pletschke, Brett I. 2020. "Evaluating Feruloyl Esterase—Xylanase Synergism for Hydroxycinnamic Acid and Xylo-Oligosaccharide Production from Untreated, Hydrothermally Pre-Treated and Dilute-Acid Pre-Treated Corn Cobs" Agronomy 10, no. 5: 688. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050688

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