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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Managing Phosphorus Loss from Agroecosystems of the Midwestern United States: A Review

1
Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Department of Forestry, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
3
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Novelty, MO 63460, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040561
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
Best management practices (BMPs) are site-specific and their implementation, long-term management, and maintenance are important for successful reduction of phosphorus (P) loss into headwater streams. This paper reviews published research on managing P loss from agricultural cropping systems in the Midwestern United States and classified the available research based on BMPs and their efficacy in reducing P loss. This review paper also identifies the areas where additional research could provide insight for managing P losses. Our literature review shows that cover crops, reduced tillage, saturated buffers, and constructed wetlands are the most evaluated areas of current research. However, additional research is necessary on the site-specific area to measure the effectiveness of BMPs in managing P loss. The BMPs that serve as a sink of P need further evaluation in long-term field-scale trials. Studies evaluating adsorption and desorption mechanisms of P in surface and subsurface soils with materials or amendments that bind P in the soil are needed. The time required and pathways, where the flush of available P is lost or fixed in the soil matrix, need further investigation. Measured P loss from BMPs like bioreactors and saturated buffers supplemented with P adsorption materials or filters need to be simulated with models for their prediction and validation. Field evaluations of P index and critical source area concepts should be investigated for identifying problematic areas in the watersheds. Identification of overlapping areas of high P source and transport can help in strategic planning and layout, thereby resulting in reducing the cost of implementing BMPs at field and watershed scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: cover crops; tillage; terraces; water and sediment control basins; vegetative buffers cover crops; tillage; terraces; water and sediment control basins; vegetative buffers
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Singh, G.; Kaur, G.; Williard, K.; Schoonover, J.; Nelson, K.A. Managing Phosphorus Loss from Agroecosystems of the Midwestern United States: A Review. Agronomy 2020, 10, 561.

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