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Article

Morphology, Phenology, Yield, and Quality of Durum Wheat Cultivated within Organic Olive Orchards of the Mediterranean Area

1
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and the Environment, University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Padova, Italy
2
INRAE, DiaScope Unit, UE0398, INRA, Domaine de Melgueil, 34130 Montpellier, France
3
IATE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Institut Agro, 75338 Paris, CEDEX 07, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(11), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111789
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 11 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 15 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Olive Trees and Olive Oil under Climate Change)
In the current context of climate change, tree–crop combinations in agroforestry systems are suggested to mitigate water and heat stresses, particularly in semi-arid environments of the Mediterranean area. In this framework, a 3-year trial was conducted at the French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE) in Mauguio (Southern France) in order to investigate the response of twenty-five durum wheat genotypes under a yearly pruned (AF) and a never-pruned alley olive orchard (AF+), in comparison with an open field without trees (control, C). The grain yield of wheat was markedly reduced in both the agroforestry systems AF (average −43%) and AF+ (−83%), according to the shading level. Among the yield components, the plant density at harvest was enhanced in AF (+22%) and AF+ (+3%), although with a significant reduction in the number of grains per spike (−37% in AF and −62% in AF+), and the number of spikes per plant (−32% in AF and −52% in AF+). The thousand-grain weight (TGW) and harvest index (HI) were slightly higher under moderate shade (AF; +12% vs. C) and severe shading (AF+; +6%). Plant biomass and spike size were significantly reduced in both agroforestry systems, while the flag leaf–spike distance (last internode) increased in AF. It was concluded that the moderate shading conditions of AF may create a sustainable agricultural system, and the wide intraspecific variability suggested a large scope for screening suitable genotypes, helping to produce ideotypes to implement agroforestry-oriented breeding programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroforestry; alley-cropping; wheat ideotype; shading; PAR; organic agriculture agroforestry; alley-cropping; wheat ideotype; shading; PAR; organic agriculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Panozzo, A.; Huang, H.; Bernazeau, B.; Vamerali, T.; Samson, M.F.; Desclaux, D. Morphology, Phenology, Yield, and Quality of Durum Wheat Cultivated within Organic Olive Orchards of the Mediterranean Area. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111789

AMA Style

Panozzo A, Huang H, Bernazeau B, Vamerali T, Samson MF, Desclaux D. Morphology, Phenology, Yield, and Quality of Durum Wheat Cultivated within Organic Olive Orchards of the Mediterranean Area. Agronomy. 2020; 10(11):1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Panozzo, Anna, Hsinya Huang, Bruno Bernazeau, Teofilo Vamerali, Marie F. Samson, and Dominique Desclaux. 2020. "Morphology, Phenology, Yield, and Quality of Durum Wheat Cultivated within Organic Olive Orchards of the Mediterranean Area" Agronomy 10, no. 11: 1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111789

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