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Article

Oviposition and Development of Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Different Types of Flour

Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
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Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101593
Received: 24 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Management for Agro-Food during Storage)
The commercial availability of low-gluten or gluten-free flours has been increasing due to consumer demands, which raises new challenges for the management of stored product insects since little is known about the susceptibility of these flours to infestation. Here we measured oviposition and development of Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, a major pest of wheat and rice mills, on 18 different commercially available flours (almond, amaranth, barley, buckwheat, cassava, coconut, corn, garbanzo, millet, oat, potato, quinoa, rice, rye, sorghum, spelt, teff, and wheat) to assess the level of risk. The average number of eggs laid was highest for teff flour, with wheat, rice, buckwheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and spelt flour also having high oviposition. The lowest oviposition was for potato, quinoa, amaranth and cassava. Holding the eggs laid in these flours and evaluating the ability to develop to the adult stage demonstrated that the average number of adult progeny was highest for teff and wheat, followed by buckwheat, rye, oat, spelt, and millet. In an experiment where single eggs were placed directly in flour, the highest percentage development was in barley, buckwheat, sorghum, spelt, teff, and wheat. Time for 50% of single eggs to develop to adults was quickest for sorghum, spelt, teff, and wheat, while sorghum, buckwheat, corn, spelt, and barley had the quickest development of 90% of eggs to reach adults. There was substantial variation among the different flours which indicates variation in risk of insect infestation. As consumer interest in these flours continues to grow and these alternative flours become more prevalent in food facilities, understanding what diets insects successfully infest is critical to developing management tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: red flour beetle; alternative flours; gluten-free; life history; egg development; stored products; insect pests red flour beetle; alternative flours; gluten-free; life history; egg development; stored products; insect pests
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gerken, A.R.; Campbell, J.F. Oviposition and Development of Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Different Types of Flour. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101593

AMA Style

Gerken AR, Campbell JF. Oviposition and Development of Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Different Types of Flour. Agronomy. 2020; 10(10):1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101593

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gerken, Alison R., and James F. Campbell 2020. "Oviposition and Development of Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on Different Types of Flour" Agronomy 10, no. 10: 1593. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101593

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